|Israeli Jewish boys reciting prayerss|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Israel: 6,119,100 (75% of population)|
|Related ethnic groups|
Israeli Jews are found mostly in Israel and the Western world, as well as many other countries worldwide, not necessarily only in Jewish communities. Israeli Jews mostly speak Hebrew and most follow at least some religious Jewish practices. Israel, the Jewish state, currently has almost half the world's Jews.
The Jewish community in Israel is composed from all Jewish ethnic divisions, including Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Beta Israel, Bene Israel, and some converts. The Israeli Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, as well as encompassing the full spectrum of religious observance, from the Haredi communities to the Hilonim Jewish communities who live a secular lifestyle.
Despite the ongoing debate over the question of who is a Jew among Israeli Jews, the Jewish status of a person, which is considered a matter of 'nationality' by the Israeli authorities, is registered and controlled by the Israeli Ministry of the Interior, which requires a person to meet the halakhic definition to be registered as a 'Jew'. Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics estimated the Israeli Jewish population was 6,102,000 in December 2013 (75.2% of the total population). Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, Israel is home to the largest or second largest (after the United States) Jewish community in the world.
An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that a plurality of Israeli Jews (47%) identify themselves first as Jews and Israeli second, and that only 39% consider themselves first and foremost Israeli.
Jews living in the region prior to the establishment of the State of Israel are commonly referred to in English as Palestinian Jews and in Hebrew as "HaYishuv HaYehudi Be'Eretz Yisra'el (The Jewish Community in the Land of Israel).
The population consists of many ethnic groups, with a 2005 study finding that 61% of Israeli Jews had Mizrahi Jewish ancestry.
Jews have long considered Palestine to be their homeland, even while living in the diaspora. According to the Hebrew Bible the connection to the Land of Israel began in The covenant of the pieces when the region, which it called the land of Canaan ( : כנען), was promised to Abraham by God. Abraham settled in the region, where his son Isaac and grandson Jacob grew up with and their families. Later on, Jacob and his sons went to Egypt. Decades later their descendants were led out of Egypt by Moses and Aaron, given the Tablets of Stone ( : לוחות ברית), returned to the land of Canaan and conquered it under the leadership of Joshua. After the period of the judges, in which the Israelites did not have an organized leadership, the Kingdom of Israel was established, which constructed the first temple. This kingdom was soon split into two—the Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. After the destruction of these kingdoms and the destruction of the first Temple, the Israelites were exiled to Babylon. After about 70 years parts of the Israelites were permitted to return to the region and soon thereafter they built the Second Temple. Later on they established the Hasmonean Kingdom. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire in 63 BC. During the 2nd century CE a series of rebellions against the Roman Empire ended up with the destruction of the second temple and a general expulsion of Jews from their homeland.
After the destructions of the Kingdom of Israel, Kingdum of Judah and even Roman Judea, the land of Palestine was fougtht over by several existing powers of the region, including the European Catholic crusaders and several and varying Muslim and Arab empires including that of the Umayyads, Rashiduns, Mamluks and the Ottomans. For much of Palestine's history, after the defeat of the European Crusaders to the Muslims, it experienced centuries of Muslim rule and influence. Thus, the land was populated by Arabs and its population adopted Arab culture.
Zionists Movements and Palestine PartitionFollowing centuries of Diaspora, the 19th century saw the rise of Zionism ( : ציונות), the Jewish Nationalist Movement, a desire to see the creation of a Jewish State in Palestine, and significant immigration. Zionism remained a minority movement until the rise of Nazism in 1933 and the subsequent attempted extermination of the Jewish people in Nazi occupied areas of Europe in the Holocaust. In the late 19th century large numbers of Jews began moving to the Turkish and later British-controlled region. In 1917, the British endorsed a National Home for Jews in Mandate Palestine by passing the Balfour Declaration. The Jewish population in the region increased from 11% of the population in 1922 to 30% by 1940 In 1937, following the Great Arab Revolt, the partition plan proposed by the Peel Commission was rejected by the Palestinian Arab leadership, but accepted tentatively by Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion. As a result, in 1939, the British caved to Arab pressure because of support needed for World War II, abandoned the idea of a Jewish national homeland, and abandoned partition and negotiations in favour of the unilaterally-imposed White Paper of 1939, which capped Jewish immigration, and put subject to review under further agreement with the Arabs. Its other stated policy was to establish a system under which both Jews and Arabs were to share one government. The policy was viewed as a significant defeat for the Jewish side as it placed severe restrictions on Jewish immigration, while placing no restriction on Arab immigration.
Because of the increasing Arab attacks against Jewish kibbutzim, the Jews of Palestine formed several militant groups - the Lehi (: לח"י) was found in 1940 which was aimed at expelling British authorities from Palestine and allowing mass Jewish migrations to Palestine. It splt from another militant group known as the Irgun ( : אִרְגּוּן). Both groups were split from the Haganah ( : הַהֲגָנָה), litearally meaning "the Defense" in Hebrew, which was formed in 1920. All of these would later become the ancestors and form the core of what is today known as the Israel Defense Forces ( : צבא הגנה לישראל) ( : جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), Israel's sole armed wing.
The State of Israel
In 1947, following increasing levels of violence, the British government withdrew from Mandatory Palestine. The 1947 UN Partition Plan split the mandate into two states, Jewish and Arab, giving about 56% of Mandatory Palestine to the Jewish state. Immediately following the adoption of the Partition Plan by the United Nations General Assembly, the Palestinian Arab leadership rejected the plan to create the as-yet-unnamed Jewish State and launched a guerrilla war.
On May 14, 1948, one day before the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, the leaders of the Jewish community in Palestine led by prime minister David Ben-Gurion, made a declaration of independence, of the State of Israel though without any reference to defined borders.
Relations with Arab CounterpartsEver since the 1948 creation of Israel, Israeli Jews have been in a generally negative to bitter-sweet relations with their Arab counterparts. In October 2000, a series of violent demonstrations occured in Israel's Arab villages. Jewish citizens counter-rioted these, especially in Nazareth in which they threw stones at Arabs and destroyed Arab property. Additionally, even many Israeli officials were known to propagate the bitterness against Arab citizens. Rafael Eitan, the former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces compared Arabs and Palestinians to "cockroaches". In the city of Hebron, there have been signs referring to Arabs as "sub-human". After the Gaza War, the Israel Defense Forces were criticized for making t-shirts supporting the killing of Arabs. Also, despite the presence of intermarrige between Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs, this is highly opposed by Israel's conservative Jews who equate marriage to an Arab as "national treason". Many cities in Israel, including Pisgat Ze'ev, Petah Tikvah and Kiryat Gat have programs such as patrols and hotline services to report and prevent Jewish women from dating local Bedouins and Arabs nearby.
The late Ovadia Yosef (born as Abdullah Yusuf in Iraq), Israel's most revered Sephardic Jewish rabbi referred to Arabs as "worms" and deserving of death.However, there were many positive times of relations between Jewish Israelis and Arab Israelis. Having been exhausted and even sick and tired of the bloodshed between Jews and Arabs, many people from both groups have begun to attempt coopearing and co-existing. For example, the Galil Jewish-Arab School ( : בית הספר היהודי הערבי גליל, : مدرسة الجليل اليهودية العربية) was established in 1998 by cooperatists known as the Hand in Hand: Center for Jewish Arab Education in Israel. Many Arab women have also become pretty dominant in the Israel Defense Forces. The number of mixed Jewish-Arab villages in Israel begins to grow. Additionally in order to appease Israel's Arab citizens and give them a closer tie to the state, the Israeli government made Arabic an official state language in Israel alongside Hebrew.
While Hebrew and Arabic are Israel's official state languages, there are other languages spoke by Israel's Jews depending on their origin. While everybody speaks Hebrew, some Mizrahi Jews can also speak Arabic, while Asheknazi Jews can speak Russian.
HebrewMost Israeli Jews are predominantly speakers of Modern Hebrew, or Israeli Hebrew. During the diaspora eras of the Jews, Hebrew was an archaic language used only inside the temple. Lithuanian Jewish linguist Eliezer ben-Yehuda developed a modern-day spoken form of Hebrew, although different from Biblical Hebrew. One of the most successful language revival programs, Hebrew ended up becoming an official language of Mandatory Palestine and eventually, Israel's first official state language. The Israeli Declaration of Independence ( : הכרזת העצמאות) was written in Hebrew. Israel's national anthem, the Hatikvah ( : הַתִּקְוָה) literally Hebrew for "the Hope", is also sung in Hebrew. Today, most Israeli Jews and almost all Israelis (regardless of ethnicity) are fluent Hebrew speakers. It is the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language that hastened the Zionist movements and the Aliyahs to Israel - making it easier to unite Jews who had a will to emigrate to Israel. Following these mass migrations of Jews to Israel, almost all of them abandoned their native languages at birth and taught their kids Modern Hebrew. Despite the centralized nature of Hebrew, different pronunciations and dialects of Modern Hebrew exist, especially among the three main Jewish groupings: Ashkenazis, Mizrahis and Sephardis. Mizrahi Hebrew and Sephardi Hebrew are often very similar. Ashkenazi Hebrew contains pronounciation and a sub-stratum highly influenced by German and Russian, while Mizrahi and Sephardi Hebrew has an Arabic-like pronounciation and sub-stratum.
Modern Hebrew is administered by the Academy of the Hebrew Language (: הָאָקָדֶמְיָה לַלָּשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית), which is the supreme institution for Hebrew-language scholarships. The academy is owned by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem ( : האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים), which is Israel's second oldest university and contains the world's largest Jewish studies.
Thanks to decades-long ties with western powers such as the United States and the United Kingdom, English is Israel's most-spoken non-official language. Israeli Jews, and almost all other Israeli citizens are fluent and can understand English. Alongside Hebrew and Arabic, signs in Israel also contain English translations. Secular Israelis also have a great knowledge and possession of English.
RussianIsrael is also Russophone. Unlike the other Jewish migrants, who tended to lose their native languages - many Jews (mostly Ashkenazi and a few Mizrahis) from the former Soviet Union did not. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1992, a mass influx of Jews from Russia and other former Soviet territory flooded Israel taking with them, the Russian language. It is not uncommon to hear Russian being spoken in Israel, as it is the second most-spoken non-official language in Israel. Some Russians who migrate to Israel even deny being tought Hebrew, and do not speak Hebrew either. Israel contains the world's third-largest Russian-speaking population outside of the former Soviet Union. The cities of Ashdod, Rishon LeZion contain most of Israel's Russian-speaking communities, especially in Rishon LeZion where it is much more common language on the streets than Hebrew. With many Israeli Jews from the former Soviet Union, Russian is still tought to their children as these Jews try to preserve their Russian culture and background. Even with non-Russian speakers in Israel, the Hebrew spoken by Ashkenazi Jews contain a Russian sub-stratum and influence.
Arabic is mostly spoken by the Mizrahi Jewish elders, and many Israeli politicians who migrated from Arab nations. Arabic is one of Israel's official state languages, alongside Hebrew and also a Semitic language. Native speakers of Arabic in Israel speak or either spoke the dialect known as Judeo-Arabic, the Jewish dialect of Arabic that was written in Hebrew script. Those that speak Standard Arabic usually learn Arabic as a second language. Like the tendancy of other olim (those who make aliyah), spoken Arabic among the Jews did not thrive in Israel and their kids learned only Hebrew. However, today many Israeli Jewish musicians and artists - mostly Yemenite Jews, have retained fluency in Arabic and sing their songs in Arabic alongside Hebrew. This has allowed relations to soften between not only Jews and Arabs, but even with Arabs outside of Israel. Many Israeli Jews have better perceptions of Arabic than Yiddish, largely due to the fact that Arabs and Jews are related. However, Jewish perceptions on Arabic do not compare to that of Russian.
Orthodox JudaismThe majority of Israeli Jews are observant Jews. The Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur ( : יום הכיפורים) is honored as a national holiday in Israel, when the entire nation almost goes completely silent. Streets are often found empty on Yom Kippur, which is the holiest day in Judaism and of the Hebrew calendar. Also, Sabbath laws prohibit Jews from working. Devout and Orthodox Jews in Israel are known as Haredim ( : חרדים). The two most predominant factions of Judaism that exist in Israel are the Sephardic and Ashkenazi rites. Both of these rites and other sections of Judaism are led by Chief Rabbis. Because Jews face the city of Jerusalem when praying, they pray at what is known at the Western Wall ( : הַכֹּתֶל הַמַּעֲרָבִי). The wall is what is believed to be the remains of the Second Temple built during the reign of King Herod. It is the holiest Jewish site outside of the Temple Mount, an area in which Jews are forebidden from entering and shares a holy status with Muslims and Christians.
Despite the predominance of Jewish influence in Israel's government, Judaism is not the state religion of Israel, it has none.
There are also Israeli Jews who are Jewish by ethnicity, but do not follow Judaism. These are knowm as the Hilonim (: חִלּוֹנִי) or Hilon, and they live a secular lifestyle. Secularism has been predominant in the history of Jewish people as an ethnicity and a nation, especially those that existed in Russia. Despite the Biblical history of Israel, the State of Israel is a secular state that guarantees freedom of religion. Theodore Herzl, the father of a vision of a Jewish state was a secular. About 42% of Israelis are considered secular, regardless of belief in a God or not. Anybody with a Jewish ethnic ancestor can migrate to Israel, regardless of Halakha (Jewish) laws.
Some of Israel's most prominent figures were secularists and atheists. David Ben-Gurion (: דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן) - the founder of the State of Israel was an atheist and Amos Oz ( : עמוס עוז), considered Israel's national poet and philosopher is also an atheist and a secularist.
Israeli Jewish cuisine contains a diverse fushion of diaspora influence and of the neighboring local Arab and Palestinian cuisine. As expected, pork and shellfish are absent in the diet of Israeli Jews due to Jewish food and moral laws known as Kosher ( : כשר kashrut). The food of the Ashkenazi Jews include popular dishes from countries like Russia, Germany and Poland, those of the Mizrahis and Sephardis are Arab dishes. Fish is also a part of Israeli cuisine, as Jewish love of fish has dated back millenia when kosher meat was not always available.
Ashkenazi CuisineThe State of Israel was found by Ashkenazis. The Ashknenazi olim Jews brought with them popular dishes from Central and Eastern Europe - and are mostly well-renowned for their desserts and deep-fried foods which become very popular during Israel's holidays. Sufghaniyot ( : סופגניות) or in singular form sufganiyah ( : סופגנייה) is a deep-fried round dougnut (pastries originating from Germany) eaten during the Jewish feast of Hannukah. Sufganiyot is usually filled with cream or jelly. The Jews had a popular tradition of eating deep-fried foods in oil, due to the religious signiificance of oil during Hannukah. Latkes are popular deep-fried potato pancakes. Challah ( : חלה, : טשאַללאַה) is a Sabbath pastry. Gefilte fish ( : געפֿילטע פֿיש, : דגים ממולאים) is a dish made from a poached mixture of ground boned fish, such as carp, whitefish or pike, which is typically eaten as an appetizer.
Mizrahi and Sephardi CuisineThe cuisine of Jews from Arab and Muslim nations are popular for their Mediterranean theme, and have become stereotypical Israeli dishes. Most are Arab dishes. The most popular Mizrahi foods are falafel ( : פלפל, : الفلافل) which originated from Egypt. Falafel are mashed chickpea patties and deep-fried. It is usually popular served with tahini sauce. Falafel can also refer to the mashed chickpeas stuffed into pita bread as a sandwhic. Shewarmah ( : الشاورما, : שווארמה) is a dish made of meat cooked from a vertical spit. Shewarmah exists in two types, either as a meat dish or a sandwhich. Shewarmah sandwhich either uses pita or larger breads such as laffs and taboon. Hummus ( : חומוס, : الحمص), an Arab food dip which originated from Lebanon has now became a staple food in Mediterranean cuisine, including that of Israeli. Falafel and hummus are considered national foods of Israel, as they would be in Lebanon or Syria. Other popular Mizrahi dishes are those brought by Yemenite Jews who are known for their flatbreads and pastries. Lahoh ( : لحوح) is a is a spongy, pancake-like bread that was brought by Yemenite Jews to Israel. A distinctly Yemenite Jewish fried bread staple is malawach ( : מלווח), resembles a thick pancake, and it consists of thin layers of puff pastry brushed with oil or fat and cooked flat in a frying pan. It is traditionally served with a crushed or grated tomato dip, hard boiled eggs and skhug, or for a sweet taste, it is often served with honey. It is now become a very comfort food for all Israelis, no matter the background.
Notable Israeli Jews or Jews Descended from Israeli Citizens
|An Israeli crystallographer best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome. She is the current director of the Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Center for Biomolecular Structure and Assembly of the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2009, she received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry|
|Born as Ilan Wolferman, an Israeli fighter pilot in the Israeli Air Force and later became an astronaut, the first Israeli astronaut, he was part of the seven-man crew that was killed in the Columbia space shuttle disaster, oldest member of the crew|
|Also known by "Yisrael Aumman", an Israeli American mathematician and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences. He is a professor at the Center for the Study of Rationality in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. He also holds a visiting position at Stony Brook University and is one of the founding members of the Center for Game Theory in Economics at Stony Brook. Aumann received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 2005|
An Israeli-American psychologist and winner of the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He is notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, behavioral economics and hedonic psychology.
An Israeli (American-born) businesswoman and philanthropist, one of Israel's wealthiest women. She is the owner of several business companies, the largest among them Bank Hapoalim, and of several philanthropic organizations that are subsidiaries of The Ted Arison Family Foundation. Shari is one of The B Team B Leaders. According to Forbes, she is the richest woman in the Middle East, and the only woman to be ranked in the region's top-20 richest people in 2007.
|An Israeli statesman. He was the main founder and the first Prime Minister of Israel. Ben-Gurion's passion for Zionism, which began early in life, led him to become a major Zionist leader and Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization in 1946.|
|Israeli politician, founder of the Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of the State of Israel. Begin’s most significant achievement as Prime Minister was the signing of a peace treaty with Egypt in 1979, for which he and Anwar Sadat shared the Nobel Prize for Peace. In the wake of the Camp David Accords, the Israel Defense Forces withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula, which was captured from Egypt in the Six-Day War.|
|Israeli teacher, kibbutznik and politician who became the fourth Prime Minister of Israel in 1969, after serving as Minister of Labour and Foreign Minister, Israel's first and the world's third woman to hold such an office. Former Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion used to call Meir "the best man in the government"; she was often portrayed as the "strong-willed, straight-talking, grey-bunned grandmother of the Jewish people".|
An Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995. He is the only native-born Israeli politician, he was known for his instrumental role in softening relations between Israel and Jordan, as well as Palestinians.
|An Israeli statesman and retired general, who served as Israel’s 11th Prime Minister. Sharon was a commander in the Israeli Army from its inception in 1948. During his military career, he was considered the greatest field commander in Israel's history, and one of the country's greatest ever military strategists.|
|An Israeli military leader and politician, who was responsible for leading the Israelis to many victories amid the Arab-Israeli conflict, and became the fighting symbol of Israel, he was born in a kibbutz during the Ottoman era in Israel and served as the Defense Minister and the Foreign Minister of Israel, his left eye was injured in battle|
|Born as Natalie Hershlag, an Israeli-American actress. Her first role was as an orphan taken in by a hitman in the 1994 action film Léon: The Professional, but mainstream success came when she was cast as Padmé Amidala in the Star Wars prequel trilogy (released in 1999, 2002 and 2005). In 1999, she enrolled at Harvard University to study psychology while still working as an actress. She completed her bachelor's degree in 2003, she is a devout and observant Jew.|
A Yemeni-born Israeli singer known as the "Queen of Hebrew Music. In 2005, she was voted the 78th-greatest Israeli of all time, in a poll by the Israeli news website Ynet to determine whom the general public considered the 200 Greatest Israelis.
An Israeli-American television and film actress, perhaps best known for her role in the 2012 film The Odd Life of Timothy Green, which earned her a Young Artist Award nomination as Best Young Supporting Actress in a Feature Film as well as her role in the 2014 film The Giver.
Also known by his stage name Ricky Ullman, is an Israeli-American actor and musician. He is best known for playing Phil Diffy, the main character in the Disney Channel series Phil of the Future. His latest acting job was playing the role of Kip on the Lifetime sitcom Rita Rocks.
|An Israeli pop singer of Yemenite Jewish ancestry. She has released eight albums and three additional compilation albums, positioning herself as one of Israel's most successful musical acts ever. She is most famous for having won the Eurovision Song Contest 1998 in Birmingham with the song "Diva".|
|A popular Israeli singer of Yemenite and Moroccan Jewish origins who sings in the Mizrahi style and considered one of the most successful singers of the genre in Israel.|
|Born Chaim Witz in Israel, an American rock bass guitarist, singer-songwriter, record producer, entrepreneur, and actor. Known by his stage persona The Demon, he is the bass guitarist/co-lead vocalist of Kiss, selling more than 100 million copies worldwide, he is very proud of his Israeli heritage and still considers his nationality to be Israeli, and is fluent in both Hebrew and English and is a supporter of Israel|
ורד בן עמ
An American singer/songwriter from Knoxville, Tennessee, who was the tenth place finalist on the ninth season of American Idol. Since her appearance on American Idol, Didi Benami has spent the past few years honing her craft, taking classes and writing her first full-length album, Reverie. She was born in the United States to an Israeli father, her name means "rose" in Hebrew.
|An Israeli singer and songwriter. He represented Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 with the song "Milim" ("Words"). Skaat has been singing and performing in public since he was a child. At the age of six, he won a children's song festival competition. He is of Iraqi Jewish and Yemenite Jewish descent.|
An Israeli rock musician, singer, songwriter, producer, keyboardist and guitarist. He is the son of writer and poet Yehonatan Geffen and Nurit Makover, brother of actress Shira Geffen, and an alumnus of Rimon School of Jazz and Contemporary Music. Hewas and is extremely popular among Israeli youth, who were known during the 1990s as the "Moonlight Children". Politically, he associates with the Israeli left. His music deals with subjects such as love, peace, death, suicide, politics, the army in general and the IDF specifically. He is often criticized for not serving in the IDF, though, officially, he was discharged for medical reasons.
|An Israeli-American violinist, oonductor and pedagogue who is best known for his classical music and a soloist for many American movie scenes, he is of Polish Jewish descent|
|An Israeli writer, novelist, and journalist. He is also a professor of literature at Ben-Gurion University in Beersheba. Since 1967, he has been a prominent advocate and major cultural voice of a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Oz's work has been published in some 41 languages, including Arabic, in 35 countries. He has received many honours and awards, among them the Legion of Honour of France, the Goethe Prize, the Prince of Asturias Award in Literature, the Heinrich Heine Prize and the Israel Prize.|
Born as Himmelstaub, an Israeli professor of chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, known especially as a liberal, secular political thinker, author, and civil rights activist. Between 1970–1990, he was president of the Israeli League for Human and Civil Rights and was an outspoken critic of the Israeli government. Shahak's writings on Judaism have been a source of widespread controversy. He was born in Poland and was a Holocaust survivor.
|And Israeli beauty pegeant who won Miss Israel in 1976 and then went on to win Miss Universe that same year, she was the first Israeli to ever win the award|
|An Israeli beauty pageant who won the Miss World competition in 1998, she was the first and currently the only Israeli to win the title and became a global advocate in the fight against sexual violence|
יוסף שי בניון
|An Israeli international footballer of Moroccan Sephardic origin. He has previously played for Hapoel Be'er Sheva, Maccabi Haifa, Racing de Santander in Spain, two spells with West Ham United, Liverpool and Arsenal. Benayoun plays as an attacking midfielder, often occupying the space just behind the striker. In Israel, he is sometimes nicknamed "The Diamond from Dimona". He is also the captain of the Israeli national team.|
|An Israeli professional tennis player. Her career-high singles ranking is world no. 11, which she achieved on January 31, 2011 (it is the highest ranking ever for an Israeli singles tennis player, male or female). Her career-high doubles ranking is world no. 14, on May 12, 2008.|
An Israeli professional basketball player who currently plays as a small foreword for the Houston Rockets of the (American) National Basketball Association (NBA). He was also played for the Sacramento Kings, with his debut with the Kings in 2009, Casspi became the first Israeli to play in an NBA game.
An Israeli-American professional basketball coach, and a former professional basketball player. He is currently the head coach of the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association (American NBA). Blatt is one of the most successful coaches in European basketball, and has coached Russia's national basketball team as well as Israel's basketball clubs.
|Born as Abdullah Yousef, a recognized Israeli Talmudic scholar and an authority on halakha. He was the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1973 to 1983. His responsa were highly regarded within Haredi circles, particularly among Mizrahi communities, among whom he was regarded as "the most important living halakhic authority." He is a Mizrahi Jew from Iraq.|
|A Haredi Israeli rabbi who is best known for his involvement in activities which are centered on helping Jews to become more religious or observant. In public speaking in Israel and around the world and his 'Shofar' organization distributes his lectures in various media and on the internet. He is a Mizrahi Jew, born to a secular family of Yemenite Jewish background in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv|
- ↑ "Israeli Americans - History, Modern era, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns". Everyculture.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- ↑ "Israeli Americans - History, Modern era, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns". Everyculture.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- ↑ "Israeli Americans - History, Modern era, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns". Everyculture.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- ↑ "Israel's population grew 1.8% in 2013". Globes English. December 31 2-13. http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-1000906005. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- ↑ "Poll: Most Israelis see themselves as Jewish first, Israeli second - Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews". Ynet.co.il. http://www.ynet.co.il/english/articles/0,7340,L-3540049,00.html. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
- ↑ Jews, Arabs, and Arab Jews: The Politics of Identity and Reproduction in Israel, Ducker, Clare Louise, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, Netherlands
- ↑ Lucy S. Dawidowicz (1976). The war against the Jews, 1933-1945. Bantam Books. p. 403. ISBN 978-0-553-20534-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=LOXgcOEwBRsC.
- ↑ "The birth of Israel". BBC News. 1998-04-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/78601.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- ↑ Harris, J. (1998) The Israeli Declaration of Independence The Journal of the Society for Textual Reasoning, Vol. 7
- ↑ Macintyre, Donald (2009-03-22). "Israel Military condemns soldiers' shocking T-shirts". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
- ↑ http://www.timesofisrael.com/for-arabs-ovadia-yosef-left-bitter-memories/