Mexican dancing
Total population
Regions with significant populations
Mexico Mexico 116,220,947 [1]
United States United States 33,557,922 [2]
Canada Canada 96,005 [3]

Spanish, Nahuatl, Maya, other indigenous languages of Mexico, American English


Predominantly Roman Catholicism, a minority practicing Protestantism, traditional folk practices

Related ethnic groups

other Latin Americans and native groups in Latin America

The Mexicans (Spanish: mexicanos) are the inhabitants and citizens of Mexico, as well as the natives of Mexico's historical territories who identify themselves with Mexican culture and identity or anyone descended from the native or mestizo groups in Mexico. The Mexicans belong to the larger "Hispanic" or "Latino" pan-ethnic group, a collection of ethnicities and nationalities that speak Spanish and follow a culture that contains any type of influence from Spain.

Like most of Latin American culture, Mexican culture is a hybrid of ancient Mesoamerican and Spanish culture and has had a profound influence on western culture.


The terms Mexico and Mexicans came from the Spanish word mexica. This term was propagated by the Spaniards to refer to the kingdoms that ruled Central America. Natives of the country were known as indios in the Spanish caste system. People of pure Spanish descent were known as criollos and peninsulares and those of mixed Spanish and native origin were mestizos.


Ancestry and Early HistoryEdit

Mexicans do not have a single defined ancestry, as those from Mexico, and/or native of its historical territories and having been raised in the culture are accepted as being "Mexican". The indigenous people of Mexico and other parts of America were known as Indians (not to be mistaken for the ethnic group in South Asia), who trace their ancestries back to ancient migrants who settled North America from Asia. These migrants came from modern-day countries like Mongolia, China and Russia through a land bridge that once connected Russia's easternmost end and Alaska's westernmost end. This land bridge was sunken by melting glaciers and rising waters and no longer exists.[4] Most of the people of Mexico, as well as the Mexican diaspora today are mestizo, of mixed Spanish and indigenous origin with a remnant of natives and criollos (pure Spanish descent). Due to the high emigration of Arab Christians from countries such as Syria, Lebanon and Palestine to Latin American nations such as Mexico, many Mexicans also contain Arab ancestry.

Native Kingdoms in Central America 1200 B.C.-1519 A.D.Edit

These groups of Asian migrants would continue to migrate down south where they reached Central America and
Moctezuma I

Moctezuma I

South America, forming powerful kingdoms. These ancient people created perfectly planned-cities an advanced calendars all with no technology. The people who ruled southern Central America (southern Mexico and Guatemala) were known as the Aztecs. A rivaling group ruled the Yucatan region known as the Mayans. The Mayans and Aztecs became the two most powerful kingdoms of the region. The Aztec was actually a union of three kingdoms that eventually united, with Moctezuma I; becoming the supreme emperor. Many of the ancient Mexican and Central American rulers practiced large amounts of human sacrifice and Paganism. Smaller kingdoms ruled what is now central and northern Mexico. The native kingdoms in Mexico enjoyed a great abundance of gold, silver and precious metals.

Spanish Conquest 1519-1821Edit

During the Age of Exploration, Mexico was brought to Spain's attention by conquistadors (Spanish and Portuguese soldiers) like Hernán Cortés. These conquistadors and explorers heightened the attention when word
Hernan Cortez

Hernán Cortés

of the gold and silver abundance got to European monarchs. The natives resisted and even outnumbered the conquistadors but their stone weapons had very little to no effect against the superior Spanish weapons and steel armor. The native armies had no true military tactics either, only ritualistic military moves which did nothing against the elite and well-trained Spanish military. The Spanish soldiers also had horses. The conquistadors did experience losses, only simply due to confusion and overwhelm. In 1521, the kingdoms in Central America were easily defeated by Spain's forces.[5] The Spanish Empire was able to rule Mexico for at least three hundred years. Mexico was used as a governing center for Spain, through viceroys. Spain's far overseas territories in the Pacific such as Guam and the Philippines were governed from Mexico. Unfortunately, Mexico would lose its ancient wealth to the Spanish conquerors. The natives also suffered a turbulent and holocaust-like
Moctezuma III

Moctezuma III

rule from Spain, suffering from killings, beatings, slavery, forced conversions to Catholicism and died from European diseases. It isn't until a Spanish priest by the name of Bartolomé de las Casas (1484-1566) began to defy and expose the Spanish conquerors' abuse of the native people. He wrote several extensive writings about the destruction of the indigenous populations of Mexico by the Spanish colonists. Because of this, De Las Casas is known as "The Savior of the Indians" and plays a prominent role in the history of Mexico. De Las Casas argued against other Spanish priests for the rights of the indigenous people. De Las Casas's works allowed for a better and more humane treatment of the natives and much more peaceful conversion of the natives to Catholicism.[6] Through colonialism, Mexico completely absorbed Spanish culture. The Spanish language became Mexico's de facto national language and almost all of the population was converted to Roman Catholicism. In 1810, a Spanish-Mexican priest by the name of Miguel Hidalgo (1753-1811) began Mexico's war for independence against Spain. Although Hidalgo's army was defeated which led to his execution in 1811; his followers formed militias and continued to fight Spain and the Mexican royalists.[7]

First Mexican Empire 1821-1823Edit

After Mexican nationalists declared independance from New Spain, they sought to establish and independent monarchy - but one that would still be governed by a Spanish monarch. As a result of Spain's refusal to recognize the independent Mexican state, Agustín de Iturbide, who was a prominent general during the Mexican War of Independence became enthroned as emperor. He is also considered the first to design the Mexican the flag. [8][9] Iturbide's reign was short lived, and eventually met armed opposition from nationalists longing for a republic and not a monarchy. The opposing forces were led by Antonio López de Santa Anna, another prominent Mexican revolutionary and Guadalupe Victoria. As a result of multiple coalitions against his regime, Iturbide stepped down as emperor of Mexico and fled the empire - that covered most of Central America and the southwestern United States.

First Republic 1823-1935Edit

After the dissolution of the imperial regime, Mexico came under the rule of Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolas Bravo and Pedro Negrete. Nicolas Bravo was a president of the Mexican regency and the other two men were military leaders, Guadalupe Victoria had participated in the military coup against Iturbide. The two main political factions that emerged became influenced by the politics of the northern neighbor, the United States (of America); the federalists who adopted a liberal philosophy and the centralists who adopted a conservative philosophy. The hacendados, which included the army and the religious leaders of the caste system were pro-centralists. In 1824, a new constitution was adopted and a republic was established with Guadalupe Victoria as the president and Nicolas Bravo as the vice president. More economic and political trouble led to much civil war, which Spain tried to use as an opportunity to invade Mexico once more during the presidency of Vicente Guerrero. Due to illness and insufficiency of supplies, the Spanish forces surrendered. Under Guerrero's presidency, the poor people benefited and were invited into many big events including Guerrero's birthday party who adopted a populist influence, also another political influence from the United States. In 1833, Antonio López de Santa Anna became president. He eventually grew into a dictator, suspended the constitution and led many of Mexico's northern states to rebel against it. [10]

Second Empire 1864-1867Edit

Napoleon III of France needed an ally in the American continent which would lead to another Mexican desire to be governed by European dynasties. Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, an Austrian monarch from a dynasty known as the House of Habsburg. The Liberals continued resisting and opposing the regime, led by a native Zapotec by the name of Benito Juárez who established an independant political capital in Veracruz while the monarchial capital remained in Mexico City. Civil war continued between the two factions, with the European nations in support of the conservatives while the United States supported the Liberals. Juárez was caught and imprisoned a few times during Santa Anna's presidency. Juárez defeated Maximilian's forces, allowing him to sieze power in Mexico where he had Maximilian executed in 1867. Benito Juárez would became elected as president of the restored Mexican republic, the first and only president of full native origin.[11]

Modern DaysEdit

In 1876, Porfirio Díaz who led the republicans became Mexico's president. Although he proved to be a good leader, but his presidency did cite instances of corruption which led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910 that lasted until 1929, which was led by by a man named Francisco I. Madero who became president in 1911. He was then murdered by conservative forces led by Victoriano Huerta which kept the civil war ongoing. In 1914, another coalition led by Emiliano Zapata, who had help oust Díaz from power - defeated Huerta along with the help of Pancho Villa. Throughout he 1940s, Mexican experienced a miraculous economic growth. As a result of more economic chaos during the Cold War, Mexico experienced a large emigration rate of people to the neighboring United States in the north.[12]

Farmers' Labor Movements in United StatesEdit

Mexicans passed on ranching techniques to American farmers. Among many minorities, Mexican people and
Grape boycott

Chávez leading grape boycotts

Americans of such descent underwent a period of discriminations that persisted through the 1900s. During the Second World War, the United States implemented the Bracero program, which was aimed for Mexican migrant workers to help dedicate to the war cause. As conditions worsened, a Mexican American farmer by the name of César Chávez (1927-1993) led a movement for labor unions' rights and farmers' rights. Mexican Americans had wondered from farm to farm receiving very little compensations for the works they have done. In 1965, Chavez united with a Filipino American organization led by Philip Vera Cruz also aimed at farmers' rights. He succeeded and was awarded the Medal of Freedom by president Bill Clinton.


Over eighty-percent of Mexicans are overwhelmingly devout adherants to the Roman Catholic Church. Due to the works of Bartolomé de las Casas, Spanish missionaries were extremely successful in converting Mexico's people, through friendly and peaceful means. Mexico ia considered the world's second-largest Catholic country by population behind Brazil. Catholicism and Christianity play a very important part of everyday Mexican life, as Mexicans are known to be highly religious people. Mexicans attend church services on Fridays and Sundays on a weekly basis and pray to statues of Mother Mary. Mexicans also perform prayers before meals and celebrate feasts of important saints that are canonized in the church. There are very small amounts of Protestants, Pentecostal and reformist sections, many of these people tend to be ex-Catholics and their descendants. The indigenous religions were never recovered but indigenous folk traditions and practices still live on. Indigenous Mexicans follow a folk form of Catholicism that is a hybrid of indigenous ancient culture and Catholic rites and traditions. The Day of the Dead (Spanish: Dia de los Muertos), is a three-day ritual and celebration in Mexico that originates from traditional indigenous culture. The Day of the Dead is considered the biggest holiday of the year for people from southern and central Mexico, bigger than some Catholic holidays such as Easter or Christmas. As opposed to western views of "death" as an unhappy and negative element, Mexicans celebrate the deceased in honor of their former existences.


Mexican people speak the Spanish language and is a significant part of Mexican culture. The Mexican vernacular of Spanish has grown to be uniquely different from its European counterpart. Due to the large Mexican and Latino diaspora in the United States, Spanish is the second most-spoken language in the United States and is most native in the southern and southwestern parts, areas that were once under Spanish and later Mexican rule. In Mexico, the indigenous populations still speak their own dialects and languages. The Mexican government currently recognizes sixty eight indigenous languages in Mexico. Out of these, the most spoken are the Nahautl and Maya languages. As for the Mexican diaspora in the United States, many are fluent Spanish speakers and many others become embedded in Americanization and only know English or simple Spanish words and phrases. Many also code-switch, forming 'Spanglish.

Art & MusicEdit

Maya vase

Classical-era Mayan vase depicting a noble's burial

Mexican people enjoy a great deal of art and music in their history. Mexican art is considered one the most vibrant and colorful. Like much of its culture, it contains a hodge podge of Native Mesoamerican and Spanish influence. The ancient art of Mexico was highly influenced by religion and displayed the honoring of deities that is characterized by works in jade and hieroglyphics, a form of writing based on pictures. Ancient Mesoamerican art also used a lot of ceramics to make pottery - these traditions still live on with Mexico's indigenous people today.[13] The Mayans also made murals inside their temples and structures. Handcrafts and folk art is also predominant in Mexico, the significance of religion still lives on - Mexican art usually tends to be Catholic-influenced. People such as Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo beautified paintings and murals in Mexico. Frida Kahlo, who was actually of German and Jewish descent had a

A nine-pointed star piñata

great love for Mexican culture and art. Kahlo's art was also a form known as surrealism and incorporated types of symbolism.[14] Diego Rivera is another famous Mexican painter who in fact, was Frida Kahlo's husband. He is also well-known for his paintings and murals. An popular example of living Mexican art is the piñata, which is colorful box that is decorate with papier-mâché. The box is usually filled with candies, treats and even money, usually popular during birthday parties around the world - it is hit continually with a stick until a hole in punched making the treats spill out. Ironically though, the origins of the piñata are actually theorized to be of Chinese origin rather than Spanish.[15]

A Mariachi band

 Mexican music is also well-revered throughout the western world including a wide array of native instruments. The maracas are a popular native instrument in Latin America made with dried calabash, gourd shells - or even coconut


shells. Generic versions can also be made with wood, the inside are usually filled with seeds which make sounds when shaken. Because of the presence of the Spanish language, modern-Mexican music usually portrays romantic situations. The most popular type of music is Mariachi, which includes the playing of violins, guitars and a five-string guitar known as the vihuela. Mariachi music is generally played during weddings and quinceañeras (a girl's fifteenth birthday celebration in Latin America). Other popular forms include Ranchera, which is of folklore and for patriotic situations, and Norteño which is usually a blend of other musical styles.[16]


Modern-Mexican architecture reflects European Spanish architecture. But Mexicans have twisted the architecture to
Mayan temple
make it their own unique architecture. Ancient Mexican architecture were made of mud-bricks called adobe. These were used to build large structures such as pyramids. Ancient structures in Mexico and Central America were built by the powerful native kingdoms that ruled Central America prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Scientists today can't figure out how these rulers were able to built prestigious creations without modern-day technology. Modern Mexican architecture combines the two, to build Catholic churches. The ancient architecture usually consisted of step-pyramids. The stone ruins of the ancient Aztec and Maya civilizations are still intact, and are a world UNESCO site. These sites make Mexico a famous tourist destination.


Rice and mole

Enchiladas with rice and mole sauce

Staple Mexican spices and herbs include chillies, oregano, cilantro, chipotle, chocolate and even grasshoppers, which are crushed to make the spice. Common meats include beef, chicken, goat and pork. Corn, rice, beans, squash, cacaos and tomatoes are the main staple crops in Mexican cuisine. Coconuts, pineapples, mangos, guava and other tropical fruits are the main fruits for making desserts. Corn in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking countries is commonly called maize which is a distinct type of corn. Maize is used to make a native flat-bread known as a tortilla, which are sold everywhere in Central America and South America,


from stores, to street vendors and open-air markets, it is made easily on a flat-metal pan above a fire. Tortillas are also used to make a half-wrapped food known as a taco, in which fillings such as beef, chicken and vegetables are covered in a folded tortilla. Tacos come in many varieties. Various toppings and sauces can be used for tacos, such as salsa, a tomato-based sauce, usually blended in with spices such as chili to create a distinct taste. Salsa is also commonly used as a dip for hardened tortilla chips. Other than tortillas, corn can also be used to make elotes, a popular street-snack in Mexico which includes maize that is topped with Mexican permesan, butter and mayonaise. Since Mexico is nearly surrounded by the oceans (Pacific to the west, Atlantic to the east), seafoods also contribute to a significant part in Mexican cooking. Shrimps and fish are the common seafoods. Most of the coastal populations in Mexico


deal with much more seafood than tacos. Cocao products are blended in with spices and herbs to make a spicy chocolate sauce known as mole (mol-eh), used as a dish topping - it is most popular during the Day of the Dead and Cinco de Mayo celebrations. Chapulines are grasshoppers that are fried, dried and salted. This process is to prevent nematode infestation. Chapulines can be used as a spice, topping or a filling for a taco and are commonly sold in street markets. Mexican cuisine is also renowned for its rich desserts and wide range of sweet breads, pastries,
Pan de muerto

Pan de muerto

pastes, ice creams and alcoholic beverages. Empanada is a baked pocket-dessert introduced by Spain. Empanadas are usually filled with fruits or vegetables. Flan, a sweet thick custard-based dessert, is also of Spanish and European influence. Paleta is ice cream that made and sold in Mexico, usually sold in carts. Coconut, mango and guava-flavored products are very popular in Mexico, most desserts that added with a Mexican twist are used or flavored with coconuts and other tropical fruits. For example, coconut or mango flavored paleta ice cream. Alcohol is not only consumed as a beverage but also used as an ingredient for dishes. During the Day of the Dead

Ice cream sold in Mexico's streets are commonly sold in carts, known as paleta

celebration on November 1 and November 2, Mexicans make a special type of bread known as pan de muerto, or "bread of the dead". This bread is a sweet-softened type that is made to look like buns. The bun is decorated with bone-like pieces. In the region of Oaxaca, pan de muerto is more specifially designed with edible artwork. Mexicans also make calaveras de azúcar, which are sugar skulls. The skulls are designed with edible decorations and royal icing. It can be eaten or simply used as an artwork made of sugar, it is usually given to children to eat. Those that aren't going to be eaten are usually designed with non-edible ingredients and used put on the altar. Chicharonnes are pork-rinds, also a popular snack in Mexico.

Tex-Mex CuisineEdit

Mexican-American cuisine in the southern United States is known as Tex-Mex food. Tex-Mex food and traditional Mexican cuisine are oftenly mistaken to be the same thing, for Tex-Mex food is referred to as "Mexican food" in the United States. Tex-Mex cuisine includes such foods like flour tortillas, ground beef tacos and burritos which are not typically found in Mexico. Burritos are soft-version of tacos, that completely envelope the filling. Tex-Mex style food also includes rice as a filling for tacos and burritos. This practice is not typical or common in Mexico. Should these foods and practices be found in Mexico, they are of influence from Texas and the southern United States. Also there is a type of Tex-Mex rice known as "Spanish rice". This type of fried rice has an orange-color to it, and is neither found in Mexico or Spain. Real Mexican rice has a more yellowish-color to it. The term for it is rather upsetting for people of Mexico and Spain. Most fast-food restaurants in the United States that claim to sell Mexican food are selling Tex-Mex food.

Notable Mexicans or People of Mexican OriginEdit

Miguel Hidalgo

A Mexican priest and the beginning leader of the Mexican Revolution against the Spanish Empire, as a priest, Hidalgo served in a church in Dolores, Mexico. After his arrival, he was shocked by the poverty he found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, but in Mexico, growing these crops was discouraged or prohibited by the authorities due to Spanish imports of the items
Juana Inés de la Cruz
De La Cruz

A self-taught scholar and poet of the Baroque school, and Hieronymite nun of New Spain. Although she lived in a colonial era when Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, she is considered today both a Mexican writer and a contributor to the Spanish Golden Age, and she stands at the beginning of the history of Mexican literature in the Spanish language.

Agustín de Iturbide

A Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperor briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag.

Juan Rulfo

A Mexican writer, screenwriter and photographer, one of Latin America's most esteemed authors, Rulfo's reputation rests on two slim books, the novel Pedro Páramo (1955), and El Llano en llamas (1953), a collection of short stories.

 Porfirio Díaz

A veteran of the Reform War who rose to become Mexico's president for three decades, a veteran of the Reform War and the French intervention in Mexico, Díaz rose to the rank of General, leading republican troops against Emperor Maximilian. However he is commonly considered by historians to have been a dictator, and a controversial figure in Mexican history

Emiliano Zapata

A leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the founder of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo. Zapata remains an iconic figure in Mexico, used both as a nationalist symbol as well as a symbol of the neo-Zapatista movement.

Pancho Villa

Mexican revolutionary that also fought against Victoriano Huerto and fought against corrupt dictators in Mexico, as commander of the División del Norte (Division of the North), he was the veritable caudillo of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua, which, given its size, mineral wealth, and proximity to the United States of America, provided him with extensive resources. Villa was also provisional Governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914.

Benito Juárez

A native Zapotec lawyer from Oaxaca who overthrew the Second Mexican Empire and monarchy in Mexico, served as the president of Mexico for five terms: 1858–1861 as interim, then 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872 as constitutional presiden restoring the republic, and became the first indigenous president of Mexico - he also resisted the French invasion
Dolores del Río

A Mexican film actress. In Hollywood in the 1920s and 1930s, and was one of the most important womanly figures of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. She was considered a mythical figure in Latin America and quintessential representation of the feminine face of Mexico in the world.

Rodolfo Neri Vela

A Mexican scientist and astronaut who flew aboard a NASA Space Shuttle mission in the year 1985.[1] He is the first and only Mexican, and the second Latin-American to have traveled to space.

Ximena Navarrete

A Mexican model, actress and beauty pageant titleholder who won Miss Universe 2010. She was previously named as Nuestra Belleza México 2009. She also has an acting career, Navarrete announced she would debut her acting career in the soap opera La tempestad in 2013, she also became the spokesperson for Old Navy and L'Oreal Paris In 2011

Full name is Ariadna Thalia Sodi Miranda, a Mexican singer, songwriter, published author, actress and entrepreneur, who has sung in various languages including Spanish, English, Portuguese, French and Tagalog. She is recognized as the most successful female solo Mexican singer by latin media conglomerates such as Univision, Televisa and Azteca. In 2008, the British tabloid The Sun named her one of "the 50 female singers who will never be forgotten.

Carlos Slim
A Mexican bussiness magnate and philantropist of Arab descent, ranked as one of the world's richest men who owns Telemax and América Móvil, providing Latin America with top teleservices.

Frida Kahlo

A  painter from Mexico City of German and Jewish origin that became a leading influence of Mexican paintings, Mexican culture and Amerindian cultural tradition are important in her work, which has been sometimes characterized as Naïve art or folk art, she has also been praised by femanists

Juan Manuel Marquez

A Mexican professional boxer, he is the 3rd Mexican-born boxer (after Erik Morales and Jorge Arce) to become a four-division world champion, winning seven world titles in four different boxing weight classes. A natural counter puncher, Marquez is known for being a fast and highly technical fighter. He is also known for his four fights against Manny Pacquiao. Ring Magazine currently ranks Márquez as the number six pound-for-pound boxer in the world and number one in the junior welterweight division
Javier Hernandez

A Mexican footballer who plays as a forward for Premier League club Manchester United and the Mexican national team. Hernández plays with his nickname, "'Chicharito", on his shirt. He previously played for the Mexican club Guadalajara, before becoming the first Mexican player to join Manchester United. Hernandez is the joint third highest goalscorer of all-time for the Mexican national team.

Edward Olmos


A Mexican American actor and director. Among his most memorable roles are William Adama in the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica, Lt. Martin Castillo in Miami Vice, teacher Jaime Escalante in Stand and Deliver, patriarch Abraham Quintanilla in the film Selena, Detective Gaff in Blade Runner, and narrator El Pachuco in both the stage and film versions of Zoot Suit.

Salma Hayek


A Mexican-American actress, diretor and producer from Mexico who was born to a Spanish mother and a father of Arab descent, her breakthrough role was in the 2002 film Frida as Frida Kahlo for which she was nominated in the category of Best Actress for an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Screen Actors Guild Award and Golden Globe Award.

César Chávez

An American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW). An American citizen of Mexican descent, Chavez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic members.

George Lopez

An American actor and comedian best known for his leading role in the sitcom George Lopez, his stand-up comedy examines race and ethnic relations, including Mexican American culture. He was the host of the late-night talk show Lopez Tonight on TBS until its cancellation on August 12, 2011.

Selena Quintanilla-Pérez

An American singer-songwriter. She was named the "top Latin artist of the '90s" and "Best selling Latin artist of the decade" by Billboard for her fourteen top-ten singles in the Top Latin Songs chart, including seven number-one hits

Oscar De La Hoya

A retired American professional boxer and founder of Golden Boy Promotions - a boxing organization, nicknamed "The Golden Boy," De La Hoya won a gold medal at the Barcelona Olympic Games shortly after graduating from James A. Garfield High School.

Works CitedEdit

  8. Vazquez-Gomez, Juana (1997). Dictionary of Mexican Rulers 1325–1997. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-313-30049-3.
  9. Ibañez, Alvaro (2005-02-12). "Mexico en sus Banderas/Bandera del Imperio de Iturbide" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Reforma. Notimex.
  13. Rosas Volume 1, p.12.