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Mongols
Монголчууд
ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
Mongols
Total population
approx. 10,000,000
Regions with significant populations
Majority populations
Mongolia Mongolia 3,180,000 [1]
Minority populations
China China 7,059,000 [2]
Russia Russia 983,000 [3]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 2,523 [4]
Languages

Mongolian, Buryat, Kalmyk, other Mongolic languages and dialects, also Chinese and Russian

Religion

Mostly Tibetan Buddhism, Animism, Christianity, Shamanism, Islam

Related ethnic groups

Turkic people, Tungusic peoples

 

The Mongol people (Mongolian: Монголчууд/ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ), are a Altaic ethnic group that is indigenous to North Asia (also known as Siberia), East Asia and Central Asia, more often conceived as Mongolic people. The Mongols live a very unique and nomadic lifestyle that separates them from the surrounding cultures. Although ever since the decay of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols have been generally separated and divided back into clans and tribes with the only remaining unity in Mongolia and northern China - where the minority population is more than double that of Mongolia's majority.

Mongolian people today still practice a culture no different to their ancient counterparts. Mongolians have also been dominant in the sport wrestling, not only in their native style in Mongolia but of sumo wrestling in Japan as well.

History

Early History

The idea of a unified "Mongol" ethnicity did not exist in Siberia. Most of the tribes that today known as Mongols were nomadic people from the Altaic region of Asia who relied on clan-rule and warred with other tribes. Anthropologists often referred to these nomads as Mongolic (not to be mistaken for Mongoloid) and Turkic peoples by the distinct dialects they spoke. The Mongolic people were the tribes in East Asia, specifically Siberia; and the Turkic people were the tribes from Central Asia; both groups were closely related. Modu Shanyu; a native of Mongolia (Chinese: 冒顿单于) made the earliest attempt to create a nature of some unity among the Mongolic tribes of Siberia and northern China known as the Xiongnu.[5] This confederation eventually became a military threat to the Chinese Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝) which eventually led to the latter construction of the Great Wall of China, and dominated Central Asia for about 500 years.[6] Mongolic and Turkic rulers became known as khans (Mongolian: хаан), Buddhism and Shamanism became the main religions of the Mongolic and Turkic peoples.

Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368

Banner

The mighty Genghis Khan

Unity only prevailed when a soldier by the name of Genghis Khan, who came from a tribe known as the Borjigin or the Chinggisid, united the warring tribes that eventually became today's Mongols. He eventually rose from a devastasted childhood and became the Great Khagan or khan of the Mongol Empire. Under Genghis Khan and his descendants, the new unified kingdom conquered territory that was seemed necessary for a stronghold. Therefore Genghis Khan is considered the father of modern-day Mongolia.[7] At the height of its peak, the Mongol Empire stretched from southern Russia, all of China into Vietnam and Afghanistan. When Kublai Khan (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан), a descendant of Genghis Khan took over China by defeating the
Yuan Dynasty coins

Coins from the Yuan Dynasty

remaining Song Dynasty armies, he established the Yuan Dynasty (1279 A.D.-1368 A.D.) and established China as a firm stronghold of the Mongol Empire. The Yuan Dynasty is regarded as both period of time in Mongolia's history and one of China's imperial dynasties. The Yuan Dynasty was also one of the only dynasties where a non-Chinese emperor ruled China. Much to his respect for Chinese culture, he titled himself using both Mongol and Chinese traditions. Kublai Khan was both Chinese emperor and the great Khagan of the Mongol Empire and renamed Beijing to Dadu, which was designated as the capital of the Yuan Dynasty. In China, he was known as Emperor Shizu of Yuan (Chinese: 元世祖). The Yuan Dynasty was ended when the Chinese rebelled which overthrew the Mongol rule in China. After the Yuan Dynasty's destruction and decay, the Chinese pushed the Mongol forces back and took over Mongolia. The remnants of the Mongol Empire that retreated to Mongolia were known as the Northern Yuan Dynasty (1368 A.D.-1635 A.D.).[8]

Northern Yuan Empire 1368-1635

In 1351, a prophetic and messianic Buddhist section known as the White Lotus Society (Chinese: 紅巾起義), found by Kuo Tsu-hsing, initiated a rebellion against the Yuan rulers of China as a result of the government's failure to address problems that Chinese farmers were facing. This rebellion is known as the Red Turban Rebellion
220px-Tsogtiin tsagaan baishin

"Tsogt Taij's White House (White Castle)" was built in 1601.

(Chinese: 紅巾起義).[9] Zhu Yuanzhang, a Chinese peasant began the the Ming Dynasty. The Chinese forces took the city of Yingchang in Inner Mongolia, and continued to push the Mongols back to Mongolia. In 1388, the throne of this remnant empire that became known as the Northern Yuan was taken by Yesüder, a ruler from the Tolui clan, not the Kublai clan and of a western Mongolic tribe known as the Oirats (Mongolian: Ойрад). The Northern Yuan Empire represented a reminiscent of the pre-Genghis Khan history of the Mongols, characterized by an era of quarreling over throne-succession and civil war. Despite some turbulences, the Northern Yuan rulers still retained relations with the Ming Dynasty of China. The Oirat tribes continued to be the ruling and governing tribe of the Northern Yuan dynasty. In 1479, the empire was back under the rule of Genghis Khan's descendants, a man by the name of Batumöngke, who would receive the title Dayan Khan (Mongolian: Даян Хаан). Dayan Khan eliminated the policies of the former Oirat rulers and reunited the Mongols of the Northern Yuan Dynasty and organized the Mongol army into units of 10,000 men known as tümens. The Manchus, an ethnic group native to Manchuria in China gave the Mongols their influence and established the Jin Dynasty. Relations with the Manchus proved to be troublesome, wars with the Chinese forces led to the Northern Yuan's defeat and was eventually ceded to the Qing Dynasty.[10]

Chinese Annexation 1635-1949

Following the defeat of the Manchus and the Northern Yuan, came the cession to the Chinese Qing Dynasty in 1644, a Manchu-dynasty in China.
Sukhbaatar

Damdin Sükhbaatar

Mongolia remained part of China until Damdin Sükhbaatar (Mongolian: Дамдины Сүхбаатар), a military leader from Ulaanbaatar; started the Mongolian Revolution which was an independence movement of Mongolia from China. He is credited as Mongolia's national hero after Genghis Khan. The Chinese never stopped trying to take back Mongolia. The Russians helped the Mongols drive the remaining Chinese forces out of Mongol territory. In 1949, China submitted and recognized Outer Mongolia's independence which simply became Mongolia.[11]

Soviet Annexation 1949-1992

During the Cold War, Mongolia adopted Soviet influence following its release by the People's Republic of China, the People's Republic of Mongolia was established and became a protectorate and puppet state of the Soviet Union. On the positive military consequences, the Soviet armies repulsed Japanese invasions against Mongolia. But the predominant Russian influence eliminated the classical Mongolian alphabet, as the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced which became the writing script for the Mongolian language.[12] Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia (today's Mongolia) Manchuria, which once had a thriving Mongol population under Chinese control was invaded by Japan, thus most of the war eliminated the Mongols in Manchuria as result of China's failure to repulse the Japanese invasions. Inner Mongolia, the southern remnant of the Yuan Empire was given control to the People's Republic of China by Soviet premier Joseph Stalin, although the Classical Mongolian alphabet was saved from extinction there. In 1992, the Soviet Union collapsed, which brought a period of economic devastation to its former satellite states - which would include Mongolia. In some way, thanks to the nomadic and barter-like lifestyle of the Mongolians, they were able to stand through until recent Mongolian politicians improved the economy slightly. Today Mongols still hold true to their nomadic heritage and time with Genghis Khan. Most Mongolian culture is based from Genghis Khan's traditions. Archery, horseback-riding and wrestling are Mongolia's national sports and one of Inner Mongolia's most popular sports. Genghis Khan's soldiers used all of the three to train themselves to conquer one of history's largest empires. Genghis Khan is gone but his spirit still lives strong in the hearts of Mongols today. Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj is Mongolia's current president. Most of Mongolia's present-day economy is still based on barter and trade and most Mongols spend their lives raising livestock. President Elbegdorj is trying to help Mongolia develop a more western-like economic market system.

Language

The Mongol people are native speakers of the Mongolic group of languages, which belong to the Altaic family, along with the Turkic languages of Central Asia and Tungusic languages of Siberia and northeastern China. Within the Mongolic languages, standard Mongolian has the largest amount of speakers, and functions as the national language of Mongolia and is spoken by the ethnic Mongols in
Mongol bichig01

The traditional Mongolian-Uyghur alphabet

China. It is considered a recognized minority in China. There is also another small Mongolic-speaking group in China known as the Dongxiang people (Chinese: 撒尔塔), they speak their own language. However, the Dongxiang people are normally regarded as a separate ethnic group from the Mongols and other Mongolic people. There are two types of Mongolic ethnicities from Russia, the Buryats (Buryat: Буряад) and the Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд). The Buryat, Kalmyk or Dongxiang languages are not necessarily intelligible with Mongolian. A Mongol or Dongxiang from Mongolia or China would not necessarily be able to understand a Buryat or Kalmyk from Russia. The Buryat people of Russia speak Russian as a second language, the Mongols of northern China speak Mandarin as their second language. 

Writing System

The Mongolic languages are written in a number of different scripts. The standard Mongolian language contains two different alphabets, depending on where the speaker comes from. In Mongolia, it is written in the Cyrillic script as a result of Soviet influence. In northern China, it is written in the traditional Classical Mongolian alphabet, which was used in the era prior to Soviet influence. This alphabet is derived from the classical Uyghur script, and written vertically. It is the same alphabet that was used for the Manchu language, as well as other Tungusic and Old Turkic languages. Both the standard Mongolian and Manchu languages were written in the Mongolian script. In China's Inner Mongolia province, public signs are normally printed in both Chinese and Classical Mongolian. There are attempts to revive the script in Mongolia, the alphabet has been implemented into Mongolia's currency as well as passports and other identification cards. However, attempts to revive its practical use in Mongolia has proven to be difficult and futile.
6199821559 6b28d4d4d7 z

Street signs in Inner Mongolia, China displaying both Chinese and classic Mongolian translation

Buryat and Kalmyk languages also use the Cryllic alphabet. The Dongxiang people use the Chinese and Arabic scripts for their language. The Tibetan language functions as the liturgical language of Tibetan Buddhism.[13]  The groups of Mongolia and China use the Tibetan script simply for its liturgical uses.[14]

Religion

Buddhist temple

A Tibetan Buddhist temple in Mongolia

Most Mongols follow the Tibetan section of Buddhism. The Mongols from Mongolia and China are mostly Tibetan Buddhists. Tibetan Buddhism is indigenous to Tibet, a region in China that had been fought over by the armies of the surrounding regions for centuries. However, Shamanist and Animistic traditions still live on in Mongol culture. There is still a small minority of Mongols practicing Shamanism and Animism themselves. Many Mongol nomads in the Gobi Desert are earth-worshippers. Therefore, many of these people do not wear boots that dig into the earth. There is a population practicing Christianity and Islam. The Kalmyk and Buryat people of Russia are mostly Orthodox Christians. The Dongxiang people from China and Moghol people of Afghanistan are Muslims, the Dongxiang people make up one of China's minority Muslim populations.

Architecture

Yurt mongol

A Mongolian yurt/ger

Traditional Mongol architecture highly reflects their way of living. Most Mongols live a very traditional nomadic way of life. They live in a tent-like structure known as the ger (Mongolian: гэр), also known commonly as a yurt which is also traditional in Central Asia. Gers/yurts are able to withstand the harsh Siberian weather. Yurts are sturdy structure that can be build within at four hours, usually made of felt pads. The crown of the yurt is one of the most important parts, which is usually passed on from generations of the past.
Ger

Inside a family's ger

Yurt decoration is based on certain patterns. These patterns are generally not according to taste, but are derived from sacred ornaments with certain symbolism. Symbols representing strength are among the most common, including the khas (swastika) and four powerful beasts (lion, tiger, garuda and dragon), as well as stylized representations of the five elements (fire, water, earth, metal, and wood), considered to be the fundamental, unchanging elements of the cosmos. Such patterns are commonly used in the home with the belief that they will bring strength and offer protection.

The yurt design has also been integrated even into Mongolian urban culture, such as Ulan Bator's famous wrestling stadium which continas a yurt-style roof. Additionally, many Mongolian restaurants and eateries in Ulan Bator and other cities in Mongolia use yurt-style architecture. Mongols have
Gandan

Gandan Monastery

also absorbed some Chinese and Russian influence in their architecture as a result of interactions with China and Russia. Traditional Buddhist temples build Chinese style can be found in Mongolia, such as the famous Gandan monstary (Mongolian: Гандан, Chinese: 甘丹寺) which contains a blend of Chinese and Tibetan style. The name is actually short for Gandantegchinlen (Mongolian: Гандантэгчинлэн) which means "Great Place of Joy" and houses over 150 monks. The Erdene Zuu Monastery (Mongolian: Эрдэнэ Зуу хийд) is a traditional Tibetan temple in the Övörkhangai Province of Mongolia, near the ancient city of Karakorum which is the earliest surviving Buddhist monastery in Mongolia. It was ordered into construction by ruler Abtai Sain Khan and his grandfather Zanabazar. Additionally, because Mongolia was a former Soviet puppet state during the Cold War, many Soviet-era buildings remain in tact in Ulan Bator.

Cuisine

Boodog

Boodog

Mongol cuisine has a strong correlation with the culture and nomadic way of life of the Mongols. Mongols from Mongolia and China also focus their eating habits and cultural ways back to Genghis Khan and his army. Due to historical interactions as well as geographic proximity, Mongols have adopted some Russian, Chinese and Central Asian influences. Temperatures in Mongolia and other areas in the Siberian region can plummet to dangerously low temperatures. Most food is either boiled or steamed but fried foods do exist. Mongols prefer to eat foods that are high in fat due to the dangerously low temperatures in Siberia. Consequently, meat and dairy products are
Boiled sheep's head

Boiled sheep-head

heavily regarded as one of the most important parts of a Mongol diet. The fat is the most favored parts of the animal. Sheep, marmot, yaks, beef, game and mutton are the main staple meats in Mongol cuisine. Buuz (Mongolian: Бууз) is a dumpling dish most popular with Mongolians and Buryat people from Russia. Instead of using pork; Mongols use mutton or lamb for buuz. The Dongxiang people do not use pork due to Islam's prohibition against pork. Buuz can be steamed, fried (known as kuushur). Boiled buuz is usually eaten in soups. Buuz is typically dipped in fermented mare's milk or vodka as a sauce. In case of fried foods such as kuushur (fried buuz), Mongols usually use animal fat as the oil. A soup popular in Mongolia is
Buuz

Buuz being prepared inside a ger

havirigata nogol shul
, sheep rib soup. Mongolia has two national dishes, one eaten by nomads mostly and the other eaten by all Mongolians in general and the Mongols from China. Boodog (Mongolian: боодог) is a national delicacy eaten by Mongolian nomads and Mongols from China during feasts and big holidays. A true Mongolian "barbeque", boodog is usually made of either a goat, lamb or marmot that is cooked inside out. First the animal gets deboned, as a fire is prepared with stones. The empty carcass is then reloaded with the fixed meat and hot stones, and cooked over the fire. There is another version, known as khorkhog (Mongolian: Xopxoг), however the difference is that a metal tin can or pot is used instead of an animal carcass. Boodog/khorkhog is a precious food with typical Mongol families as they do not get to make it very often. Mongols are very careful to finish the meal to the last bite. An entire family could go to as a far as two years without making bodoog or khorkhog! Another national dish in Mongolia is boiled sheep's head. This dish is eaten by all Mongolians as well as Mongols from China. The head is kept boiling for hours until ready to eat. Boiled sheep head is prepared in a very traditional manner, one where even gender plays a determining factor. When eating boiled-sheep's head, the main person in charge of the family decides who gets
Boortsog

boortsog

which part of the boiled head. Sheep's head is also sold in some eateries and restaurants in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia's capital and largest city, for a rather expensive price. Boortsog (Mongolian: боорцог) is a biscuit/cookie dessert popular with the Turkic people of Central Asia as well. Boortsog is probably the only known existing dessert in Mongolia or Mongol communities. Fruits and vegetables are almost never found in any Mongol style cuisine, with the exception of the Dongxiang from China. The only possible vegetable found in Mongol cuisine is potatoes which are usually used as ingredients and toppings for soups. Occasionally sweet pickles and carrots may be sold at food markets in Ulaanbaatar. Mongol-style beverages mostly consist of milk and vodka. Airag is the national beverage of Mongolia, a drink made from fermented-mare's milk.

Hospitality and Misconceptions

Mongols are known for their high practice and belief of hospitality. A guest entering a Mongol family's ger/yurt will always be offered something to eat. People are even invited to stay in a ger if it is necessarry.[15][16] In many western and East Asian countries, there is a cuisine commonly known as Mongolian grill. In this type of cuisine, a customer picks out raw ingredients and gives them to a cook who stir fries the ingredients on a flat-top grill. Beef, chicken, vegetables and all sorts of meat are found in this type of cuisine. The term itself is deceptive because neither the cooking styles or even the ingredients are Mongolian. Many Chinese restaurants dishes known as Mongolian beef and Mongolian chicken. Mongolian beef (Chinese: 蒙古牛肉). is a dish made with thin slices of beef that are fried, smothered in a thick-sweet sauce and usually served with broccoli. Mongolian chicken is a dish resembling orange chicken and General Tso's chicken, which is made by breading pieces of chicken breast that is smothered in a sweet sauce. Both of the terms for these dishes too, are deceptive. Mongols do not use broccoli in their cooking, as vegetables are almost completely absent in Mongol style cuisine. The only vegetable found in Mongol cuisine is potatoes. Chicken is not a common meat in Mongolia or any Mongol cuisine at all. Only foreign restaurants in Mongolia would ever serve chicken or vegetables. Some Chinese restaurants also use a sauce called Mongolian sauce, which is another sweet sauce used to fry steaks, once more this sauce has no correlation with true Mongolian cuisine. The term Mongolian gives most Americans the misconception and deception that they are eating real Mongolian or any Mongol-style cuisine. Real Mongolian style sauces are not thick and sweet either. Most "Mongolian sauces" are made from fermented mare's milk or even vodka.

Notable Mongols or People of Mongol Origin

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan

Born as Temüjin, the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise. He came to power by uniting many of the warring nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan," he started the Mongol invasions that resulted in the conquest of most of Eurasia. He is a national hero in Mongolia, and a role model for many Mongols today.

Kublai Khan
Kublai
The fifth ruler of the Mongol Empire, who was most famous for his conquest of China. He found the Yuan Dynasty of China, which is regarded as both an imperial dynasty in Chinese history and an era in Mongolian history. He became the first Mongol and non-Chinese emperor of China, and was given the temple imperial name Shizu.

Dayan Khan

Dayan Khan
Ruler of the Northern Yuan Empire, reunited the Mongols under Chinggisid supremacy in the Northern Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia. His reigning title, "Dayan", means the "Great Yuan" who eliminated the Oirat supremacist rulers and recovered Genghis Khan's ruling dynasty, re-united the Mongol tribs of Siberia

Mandakhai Khatun

Khatun
The wife of Dayan Khan, a princess and military leader who re-united the warring Mongolic tribes in the Northern Yuan Dynasty
Subutai
Subutai

A skilled Mongolian general, and the primary military strategist of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. He directed more than twenty campaigns in which he conquered thirty-two nations and won sixty-five pitched battles, during which he conquered or overran more territory than any other commander in history.

Hulagu Khan
Hulagu

A Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. Son of Tolui and the Kerait princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan. His army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty, and then the modern state of Iran.

Babur

Babur
Persian military leader and conqueror who found the Mughal Empire after conquering the Indian Subcontinent, a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother, born a Central Asian Muslim and adopted Persian culture

Zanabazar

Zanabazaer
The first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism for the Khalkha in Outer Mongolia. His name 'Zanabazar' is the Mongolian rendition of the Sanskrit 'Jnana-vajra' meaning thunderbolt (vajra) of wisdom (jnana)

Damdin Sükhbaatar

Sukhbaatar2

Mongolian military leader, a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that liberated Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921. Enshrined as the "Father of Mongolia's Revolution", he is remembered as one of the most important figures in Mongolia's struggle for independence

Sükhbaataryn Yanjmaa

Yaj
A widow of Damdin Sukhbaatar, who as Chairperson of the Presidium of the State Great Khural from September 1953 to July 1954 became only the second woman in history to be elected or appointed head of state

Byambin Renchin

Renchin
Mongolian linguist and author who is a descendant of Genghis Khan, one of the founders of modern Mongolian literature, a translator of literature and a scholar in various areas of Mongolian studies, especially linguistics.

Tsendiin Damdinsuren

Tsendiin Damdinsuren
Mongolian writer and linguist. He wrote the text to one version of the national Anthem of Mongolia, he also wrote poetry that was well received in Mongolia and produced prose and literary studies, and a translation of The Secret History of the Mongols into modern Mongolian.

Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal

Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal
One of the leaders of Mongolia from 1952 to 1984. During his political life, he served as prime minister and general secretary of the Mongolian People's Party. His foreign policy was marked by efforts to bring Mongolia into ever closer cooperation with the USSR.

Jugderdemidiin Gurragchaa

Mongol astronaut
Mongolia's defense minister from 2000-2004, first Mongolian and Asian into outer space, he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on March 30, 1981. The Zaisan Memorial, a monument south of Ulaanbaatar dedicated to Russian–Mongolian friendship, includes a mural which depicts amongst its scenes Gürragchaa's 1981 flight. Gürragchaa also worked as the chief of staff of air defence for the Mongolian Armed Forces.

Tsakhiagin Elbegdorj

Elbegdorjk
The current president of Mongolia, who has established himself as one of the principal champions in emerging markets and was one of the architects of democracy in Mongolia, he was one of the key figures of the 1990 Mongolian democratic revolution and served as the Prime Minister of Mongolia in 1998, and from 2004-2006
Asashōryū Akinori
Japan-Mongol wrestler

Born as Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj, a Mongolian former professional sumo wrestler, he was the 68th yokozuna in the history of the sport in Japan. He was one of the most successful yokozuna ever. In 2005 he became the first wrestler to win all six official tournaments (honbasho) in a single year. Over his entire career, he won 25 top division tournament championships, placing him fourth on the all-time list.

Ulanhu
Ulanhu

The founder of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China, Ulanhu had the nickname of "Mongolian Khan" during his political career. During the Second World War, Ulanhu led his forces to stop the Japanese from advancing towards Hohhot and led his officers to march to Shanbei where he continued battling against the Japanese forces. He served as China's Vice-President under President Li Xiannian from 1983-1988.

Mengke Bateer
Mengke Bateer 2

A Chinese retired professional basketball player remembered for his time with Beijing Ducks of the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA) where he also played for the Xinjiang Flying Tigers and the Sichuan Blue Whales, winning a CBA championship in 2014 with the Ducks. He also played in the National Basketball Association (American NBA), for the Denver Nuggets, San Antonio Spurs and the Toronto Raptors, winning an NBA Championship with the Spurs in 2003. He is one of two players from China to win an NBA title. He is an ethnic Mongol from Inner Mongolia province of China.

Bao Xishun
Bao

A native herdsman from Inner Mongolia, China, who was recognized by Guinness World Records as one of the world's tallest living men, standing at 7 feet and 9 inches. Guinness World Records had returned the title of world’s tallest man to him after Ukrainian Leonid Stadnyk took over the title briefly. After Stadnyk refused to be measured under new guidelines, which required him to be independently measured by Guinness World Records’s adjudicators, the title was returned to Xishun.

Kirsan Ilymuzhinov

Kirsan
A multi-millionare Kalmyk from Russia who was the first president of the Russian Republic of Kalmykia who has been the President of FIDE (or the "World Chess Federation"), the world's pre-eminent international chess organization, since 1995. He has also been in the forefront of promoting chess in schools in Russia and overseas. He is the founder of Novy Vzglyad Publishing House. In addition to his native Kalmyk and Russian, he can speak English, Japanese, and a bit of Korean, Mongolian and Chinese languages.

See Also

Works Cited

  1. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mg.html
  2. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm
  3. 2,656 Mongols proper, 461,389 Buryats, 183,372 Kalmyks, 263,934 Tuvans, 74,238 Altay (Russian Census (2010))
  4. http://www.toollogo2010.mn/doc/Main%20results_20110615_to%20EZBH_for%20print.pdf
  5. http://www.modunresources.com/mongolia/modun-shanyu/
  6. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/273960/Xiongnu
  7. http://www.biography.com/people/genghis-khan-9308634
  8. http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/yuan/
  9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Turban_Rebellion
  10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Yuan
  11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolia_during_Qing_rule
  12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_Mongolia
  13. http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/sects/tibetan.htm
  14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolic_languages
  15. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/09/travelers-find-hospitable-nomads-on-mongolias-steppes_n_1659257.html
  16. http://www.slate.com/articles/life/welltraveled/features/2008/the_mongolia_obsession/the_astonishing_hospitality_of_rural_mongolians.html

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