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Palestinians
الشعب الفلسطيني‎
Palestinians
A native Palestinian dance
Total population
c. 11,000,000
Regions with significant populations
Palestine Palestinian territories 4,420,549 [1]
Jordan Jordan 3,000,000 [2][3]
Israel Israel 1,650,000 [4][5]
Syria Syria 630,000 [6]
Chile Chile 500,000 [7]
Lebanon Lebanon 402,582 [8]
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 280,245 [9]
Egypt Egypt 270,245 [10]
United States United States 255,000 [11]
Honduras Honduras 250,000 [12]
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 170,000 [13]
Mexico Mexico 120,000 [14]
Languages

Palestinian Arabic, Hebrew

Religion

Islam Predominantly Islam
Christianity Christianity
Judaism Judaism

Related ethnic groups

Arabs, Jews, other Semitic groups, Canaanites, Samaritans

The Palestinian people (Arabic: الشعب الفلسطيني ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī, Hebrew: העם הפלסטיני) are the inhabitants and those descended from the Palestinian territories over the centuries.

Today, the Palestinian people adopted Arabic culture and heritage, but the region known as Palestine was also originally home to Jews and prominent Israelites since the Palestinian territories and the State of Israel had once been part of the historical Kingdom of Israel and the latter southern-kingdom of Judah, later collectively known as the Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל). Ancient Palestine had been fought over by major powers of the time, including the Romans, other European armies and Muslim armies.

The region that includes the Palestinian territories are known as the Levant (Arabic: بلاد الشام) and in Biblical sources known as as Canaan (Hebrew: כנען, Arabic: كنعان).

Etymology

The name Palestine and Palestinians came from Latin and Greek texts. The Greek historian Herodotus used the term Palestine, describing it as a land between Phoenicia and Egypt.[15][16][17]

  • Palastu, an Assyrian word used to describe southern Palestine, cognate of the Biblical Hebrew word Plištim translated into the Philistines[18]
  • The Romans used the term Syria Palestina to describe the word between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River[19]

The term Palestine and Palestinians eventually reached wide usage among Christian and Muslim contexts overtime, and thus the region that was once the Kingdom of Israel and Philistines became known as Palestine.

History

Ancient Period

The land spanning the Palestinian territories and the State of Israel today were known as Canaan and was home to
Biblical Palestine

Depiction of Biblical Palestine in c.1020 BCE according to George Adam Smith's 1915 Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land. Smith's book was used as a reference by Lloyd George during the negotiations for the British Mandate for Palestine.

very early civilizations, dating as far back as the Bronze Age where city-states have been established in Canaan. The Canaanites were influenced by the surrounding major civilizations including the Egyptians, Phoenicians and the Hellenic civilizations.

According to Biblical contexts, Canaan was known as the "Promised Land" for the Hebrew and Israelites to settle in where Abraham settled.

Israelite Period

The area was settled by descendants of Jacob, known as the Israelites - twelve tribes, which names were based on a patrilineal ancestor. At the time, the Israelite tribes were under a loose confederation and were governed by leaders known as Judges (Hebrew: שופטים). A judge by the name of Abimelech (Hebrew: אֲבִימָלֶךְ) was given control of the Israelites. Foreign threats from surrounding nations forced the Israelites to gather under a unified kingdom, under King Saul from the Benjamin tribe in 1026 B.C. But it was King David that brought the empire to one of its dominant military eras, and established Jerusalem as the capital in 1006 B.C. Under King David, the Kingdom of Israel defeated the Philistines and Midianites and other large and threatening armies that surrounded it, in which Israel emerged to become a regional power. Under King Solomon, the Kingdom of Israel reached a period of peace and prosperity. Under the reign of Solomon, large building projects took place in Israel including the construction of the First Temple on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Israel also exerted its influence on the neighboring states, including the Aramean city-states such as Aram-Damascus and others that included Moab and Ammon. After Solomon's reign, disputes between Rehoboam (Hebrew: רְחַבְעָם) and the southern tribes which splintered the kingdom into the northern Hebrew state Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah.

Antiquity Era

In about 330 B.C., Greek military leader Alexander the Great conquered Palestine. In 219 B.C., it fell to the Persians. It became known as Judaea because the large Jewish control of the area.[20][21] In 73 B.C., it was conquered by the Romans.

Advent of Christianity

Around 28 B.C.E., came the ministry of Jesus Christ who was theorized to have been a Galilean Jew but he was born in Bethlehem, which today is still a populated city in the Palestinian National Authority. Jesus was accompanied by many skilled religious leaders, twelve of them known as "apostles" and together they would preach a new faith, an off-shoot of Judaism in the Middle East and West Asia that would become known as Christianity - Jesus was was worshipped as the Hebrew God Yahweh incarnated. He was later punished by the Romans after being accused of spreading apostasy, in the mournful Biblical event known as the Crucifixion, in which Jesus was crucified in a cross which was a Roman instrument of torture against political and religious enemies and prisoners. Later on, Palestine would emerge as the learning center of Christianity in the Middle East. In 70 A.D., the Roman Emperor Titus invaded and sacked Jerusalem which caused a dispersion of the Jews and early Christians of Palestine. In 132 A.D., latter Roman emperor Hadrian merged it with Judaea and Galilee and named it Syria Palestina. Under the Roman emperor Constantine, who was the earliest Roman convert to Christianity, the Roman Empire was Christianized which contributed to Palestine's becoming of a Christian learning center. Constantine's mother, Saint Helena ordered the constructions of churches and shrines in Jerusalem after visiting the city. In 614 A.D., it fell under Persian Sassanid rule.[22]

Muslim Rule

As a result of the advent of Islam, Palestine's history took a coarse that turned it into a Muslim region with Christian and Jewish minorities. Islam originated from the teachings of the Arabian prophet Muhammad, and would replace
White mosque of Omar

White Mosque of Omar

Christianity and Judaism as the Middle East's predominant religion. This Muslim rule varied and prolonged with various Muslim empires, from the early Rashidun caliphate, to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates to Turkic Muslim empires such as the Mamluks, Ottomans and Seljuks. In 661 A.D., Mauwiyah I became crowned the caliph of Islam in Jerusalem. According to Islamic contexts, Muhammad ascended to Heaven from Jerusalem from the Temple Mount on the site of the First and Second Jewish temples as well as several Christian churches. Abd al-Malik, the Umayyad ruler ordered a construction of a shrine that marked where Muhammad ascended which would later be known as the Dome of the Rock. In the center is the rock where Muhammad is said to have ascended, as well the spot where Jesus had walked.[23] It made the Dome of the Rock significant to Muslims and Christians/Jews and made a great marvel of Islamic architecture. Overtime, the Arabic language was introduced the native people of Palestine, who were Hebrew, Greek or Aramaic-speakers and many converted to Islam. Those living in Bethlehem and Jerusalem chose to remain Christians. Palestine became known as Ottoman Southern Syria. Throughout these centuries of Muslim rule, Palestine adopted an Arab heritage and was considered an Arab region with few remaining native Jewish populations. The treatment of Christians and Jews in Palestine differed, depending on which Muslim civilization ruled over it. The Umayyads for example, were known for treating Christians and non-Muslims with respect, and ordered the armies not to destroy any churches in the region. The Dome of the Rock, according to many Christian scholars was actually a Christian church built by the Umayyads for the native Christians of Jerusalem.[24]

Mandatory Palestine 1920-1948

Coin from Mandatory Palestine

Coin from Mandatory Palestine

The last hints of a Palestinian Muslim state disappeared after the Ottoman Empire collapsed in 1920. Ottoman Southern Syria became the Mandatory Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين الانتدابية, Hebrew: פלסטין המנדטורית) under British administration. In 1936, the Arab populations of Palestine revolted against British Rule. This revolt was very costly, and failed, reducing the male Arab population greatly.

World War II

During the Second World War, a great Holocaust in Nazi Germany killed more than 6,000,000 Jew. The Italians, an ally of Germany during World War II attempted to attack Palestine, targetting Haifa and Tel Aviv.[25] At the same time, Jewish nationalism was forming in Palestine among the formation of several groups such as the Haganah and Irgun.

Arab-Israeli Conflict 1948-present

In 1948, Britain's hold of Mandatory Palestine expired and was replaced with a Zionist (Jewish nationalist) state which would become the State of Israel, which brought anger and upset amongst the Arab World that culminated into the Arab-Israeli Conflict, most of the wars ended up in Israeli victories. Alongside Zionism, the Arab  nationalism known as Al-Nahda (Arabic: النهضة‎) was also taking place. The Al-Nahda was fueled by prominent Arab authors and poets such Emile Habibi (Arabic: إميل حبيبي) and May Ziade (Arabic: مي زيادة), both were Palestinians and Habibi became an Israeli citizen after Israel became a state. The Arab-Israeli Conflict would include a much-more localized Israeli-Palestinian Conflict which included sites of terrorism between both Palestinian and Israeli extremists and gunfights between Palestinian militants and the Israel Defense Forces, although most ended up in Israeli victories but no clear victory ever ensued and no significant changes occured. Palestinian militant leader, Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات) became a symbol and hero of Palestine who spent much of his life fighting Israel in opposition to its existance, he founded the militant group known as the Fatah (Arabic: فتح). The civil wars and fighting have displaced many Palestinians, many of them living as refugees in the neighboring Jordan or emigrated elsewhere throughout the world.

Palestinian People Today

The Palestinean people today currently live in the territories controlled by the Palestinian National Authority, under Israeli administration. Israeli Arabs are not considered Palestinians, however Palestinians are considered Israeli citizens. Palestinians (today) are unified by Arabic language and culture, although they enjoy a wide melting pot of the three monotheistic religions (Islam, Christianity and Judaism). Although due to the turbulence in the Middle East, many Palestinians have emigrated throughout the world.

Language

Today the people of Palestine speak Palestinian Arabic, which defines them and distinguishes them from other Arabs. Palestinian Arabic is also the dialects spoken by the Arabs living in the State of Israel today and is the second official language of Israel, and sole official language of the declared State of Palestine.

However, also spoken in the Palestinian territories is the Modern Hebrew language since it is Israel's first official language and lingua franca. Although the Palestinian National Authority considers Arabic as the sole official language, Hebrew is tought in Palestinian schools and is mostly found spoken in cities controlled by Israeli forces and migrants from the State of Israel.

Palestinian Arabic is highly influenced by Hebrew, and is sometimes known as Israeli Arabic (Arabic: العربية الإسرائيلية, Hebrew: ערבית בישראל), Palestinian Hebrew Arabic or "Arabrew". For example, many Palestinians in Israel and Arab Israelis use the Hebrew phrase yesh (Hebrew: יש), "We Did It!" which cannot be directly translated into Arabic. This phrase is used when watching national Israeli sports teams on television.

Historically, the predominant language spoken by ancient Palestinians was Aramaic, also known as Christian Palestinian Aramaic and was influenced by Greek.

Religion

Palestine is significant to the histories of the three major monotheistic religions of Christianity, Islam and Judaism. Most Palestinians are Muslims of the traditional Sunni section of Islam. Christianity has stood out against Islamization and is also an integral part of Palestinian history, the Christians of Palestine today consider themselves to be Arab Christians most of them follow Greek Orthodox Church or the Roman Catholic Church. Many Palestinians are also adherents to Judaism, the first monotheistic faith in the area. Palestinians tend to be unified regardless of religon.

Art, Music and Architecture

Art

Palestinian art usually reflects landscapes and for religious reasons, is also dominated by Islamic art and calligraphy. Common symbols used in Palestinian art include keys and doors, that symbolizes Palestinian struggle for independance. The Cactus (Arabic: الصبار) is a symbol used for motifs in Palestinian paintings.[26]

Music

The music of Palestine is dominated by Arabic music. The oud is an Arabic instrument that is popular with Palestinian musicians. Dabke (Arabic: دبكة) is a type of line dance native to the Levant, that is performed during weddings. The cities of Nazareth and Haifa (now Israeli cities), were the centers of Palestinian music, which were often nationalistic Palestinian songs. Because Palestine was a farming area, much of the music resembled working class.

Architecture

Cave of the Patriarchs

Cave of the Patriarchs

The Palestinian territories (not including the State of Israel) are filled with many Islamic mosques and historical Christian churches and Jewish sites. The city of Jerusalem is also filled with Palestinian architecture, which incorporates Byzantine and Islamic elements into it. For example, domes and arches are very predominant in Palestinian landmarks or those built during the era before Israel's creation as a state. The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة‎, Hebrew: כיפת הסלע), which covers the rock where Muhammad ascended (according to Muslims) and the rock where Jesus walked (according to some Christian scholars) and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem for example share this example. The city of Bethlehem in Palestine contains the
Church of the Nativity

Church of the Nativity

burials and tombs of the Biblical patriarchs, who are considered prophets in Islam and is regarded as Judaism's second-most holy city.The Cave of the Patriarchs or the Cave of Machpelah (Hebrew: מערת המכפלה) or the Sanctuary of Abraham (Arabic: حرم إبراهيم) is one of Hebron's most popular tourist attractions, a site that contains a fushion of Hebron's Jewish and Islamic era-influences. A Herod-era temple and a Saladin-era mosque are said to cover the caves which contain the burial sites of the Biblical patriarchs/matriarchs and
Dome of the Rock

Dome of the Rock

the Islamic prophets. According to Jewish contexts, the site contains Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah and Jacaob and Leah's burial sites. The site also contains a mosque, known as the Ibrahimi Mosque (Arabic: الحرم الإبراهيم) and contains the tomb of Joseph. The city of Bethlehem on the West Bank is also an attraction for Christian tourists. The Church of the Nativity (Arabic: كنيسة المهد, Latin: Ecclesia Nativitatis) which houses the place where Jesus Christ was born. A Silver Star marks the exact spot, or as claimed by Christians.

Cuisine

See also: Arab Cuisine

Palestinian cuisine is a part of the larger Arab cuisine and to a small extent, Jewish cuisine, but has great Persian and Turkish influence. Palestinian cuisine is divided into three main parts, Galilee, Gaza and West Bank cuisine. Rice is a very common staple ingredient and is an essential part of all Palestinian cuisine.[27] Islamic culinary laws known as Halal (Arabic: حلال) and Jewish culinary law known as Kosher (Hebrew: כשר) greatly influence the cuisine of Palestine, both laws prohibit the consumption of pork, although Halal laws prohibit consumption of alcohol but not shellfish, and Kosher law prohibits consumption of shellfish but allows for alcoholic content (such as wine)..

Galilean Cuisine

Falafel5

Falafel

The cuisine of Galiliee resembles Lebanese cuisine due to its location and history of being close to Lebanon, meaning the hummus, a dip made from olive oil and tahini sauce is popular. Falafel (Arabic: فلافل, Hebrew: פלפל), a deep-fried food made of mashed chickpeas is popular throughout the entire Levant and Arab World, it is a national dish in Israel. Kubbi bi-siniyee is a baked snack made of minced meats (beef or lamb) and mixed with spices such as bulgur. Kubbi neyee is a raw-version of kubbi bi-siniyee and usually served in pita flatbread. Manakeesh is a breakfast food that resembles pizza, and includes ingredients such as olive oil, cheese and oregano.

West Bank

Muskakan is popular bread dish in the West Bank, it consists of roasted chicken on taboon bread with pieces of fried
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Mushakan

onions, sumac, allspice and pine nuts.[28] Mansaf (Arabic: المنسف) is a Bedouin-originated dish that is mostly cooked on big occasions mostly made with large pieces of lamb meat on top of taboon bread. Jameed is a yogurt made from goat's milk, that is sometimes poured on top of the mansaf dish. Fruits are also predominant in the types of jams made in the West Bank. In Hebron, the primary fruits are grapes and in the Bethlehem regions, they make jams made of apricot.

Gaza Strip

The cuisine of the Gaza Strip resembles Egyptian and other Mediterranean cuisine. Fish is a common ingredient in the cuisine of the Gaza Strip. Grilled fish is popular in Gaza and often topped with spices such as cilantro.  Sumaghiyyeh is a native dish in Gaza and is made of water-soaked ground sumac and roasted with tahini sauce. Fukharit adas is a lentil-stew flavored with red-pepper flakes, garlic and crushed dill seeds that is made mainly during winter and spring. Qidra is a rice dish, named after the vessel of the same name which is made by cooking rice with various spices inside the vessel, and layered with a thin bread known as farasheeh and marinated in a butter known as ghee.

Deserts

Common Palestinian desserts include halva and the Turkish baklava, a dessert made of phyllo pastry. Muhalabiyeh is a rice-pudding made with pistachios or almonds.[29] Kanafeh is a dessert popular in the Arab World and Turkey made of pastry-noodles with sweetened cheese in the middle.

Notable People from Palestine or of Palestinian Origin

Tawfiq Canaan
توفيق كنعان
Tawfiq Canaan
A medical researcher, ethnographer, doctor, physician and a Palestinian nationalist who has authored more than 37 health subjects in Palestine operating in several hospitals, he was also a mystical believer and in Palestinian folklore, collecting talismans of believed supernatural powers, he also worked as a doctor for the Ottomans
Emile Habibi
إميل حبيبي‎
Emile Habibi
Palestinian communist politician and author of Arabic expression, considered the 143rd greatest Israeli out of 200 great Israelis despite his criticisms of the State of Israel, his literature has become part of Israeli literature, he is one of the very few Arab Israelis to have recieved the Israel Prize, Israel's highest national honor
Yasser Arafat
ياسر عرفات
Yasser Arafat

A Palestinian leader who was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and leader of the Fatah political party and former paramilitary group, which he founded in 1959. He spent much of his life fighting against Israel in the name of Palestinian self-determination and was involved in decades-long negotiations between Israel and the PLO. He is a widely revered figure in the Arab World and of the Pualestinians.

Abu Nidal
أبو نضال
Abu Nidal

His real name Sabri Khalil al-Banna, the founder of Fatah – The Revolutionary Council, a militant Palestinian splinter group commonly known as the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). At the height of its power in the 1970s and 1980s, the ANO was widely regarded as the most ruthless of the Palestinian groups.

Ahmed Yassin
أحمد ياسين
Ahmed Yassin

A Palestinian imam and politician who was a founder of Hamas, an Islamist Palestinian paramilitary organization and political party. He also served as the spiritual leader of the organization. Hamas gained popularity in Palestinian society by establishing hospitals, education systems, libraries and other services, but it has also claimed responsibility for a number of attacks on Israeli civilians, getting it listed a terrorist organization by several countries.

Rania al-Abdullah
رانيا العبد الله
Rania
Current queen consort of Jordan, who is a leading influential-speaker on social issues of many fields, advocates global education and of education for Jordanian children - a philanthropist-like figure, she was born in Kuwait to Palestinian parents
Samīħ al-Qāsim
سميح القاسم
Qasim
A Palestinian Druze poet whose poetry is well-known throughout the Arab World, unlike other Druze members, he embraced Arab and Palestinian nationalism and refused to serve in the Israel Defense Forces, he was also a member of the Hadash, a communist party of Israel
George Habash
جورج حبش
Habash
Also known as "Iaqab al-Hakim", a prominent Palestinian nationalist who found the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and served as General-Secretary of the Palestine Front to 2000
Firyal
فريال
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A Jordanian princess, socialite and philanthropist who is an UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador (since 1982), and the International Best Dressed List since 1985 she is also credited for many other works concerning the heping of homeless and less-fortunate, born in the Palestinian city of Jenin to  Palestinian parents
Edward Said
إدوارد سعيد
Said
A Palestinian American professor of English, literary theorist and public intellectual who is a prominent activist for Palestinian rights, author of the famous book Orientalism
Mahmoud Darwish
محمود درويش
Mahmoud Darwish
a Palestinian poet and author who won numerous awards for his literary output and was regarded as the Palestinian national poet. In his work, Palestine became a metaphor for the loss of Eden, birth and resurrection, and the anguish of dispossession and exile. He has been described as incarnating and reflecting "the tradition of the political poet in Islam, the man of action whose action is poetry".
Juliano Mer-Khamis
جوليانو مير خميس
Mer-Khamis
An Israeli-Palestinian actor and political activist, filmmaker and director who establihed the Freedom Theater in the Palestinian city of Jenin, born to an Arab mother and a Jewish father in Nazareth
Michel Sabbah
ميشيل صباح
Michel Sabbah

The Archbishop and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1987 to 2008, the first non-Italian and first native Palestinian to hold this position in more than five centuries. Sabbah began his priestly studies at the Latin Patriarchal Seminary of Beit Jala in October 1949 and was ordained a priest for the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in June 1955. He also became a teacher of the Arabic language and Islamic studies in Djibouti for a while. He also an avid Palestinian activist and speaks on behalf of the rights of Palestinian people.

Fouad Twal
البطريرك فؤاد طوال‎
Twal
A Jordanian-born Palestinian archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church who is the current Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem (since 2008) and the Grand Prior of the Knights of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem
Raed Saleh
رائد صلاح
Saleh

Palestinian-Israeli imam, former politician and former poet who is the leader of the northern branch of the Islamic Movement in Israel. He was born in Umm al-Fahm, an Israeli-Arab city bordering the Green Line - and was elected as the mayor of that city three times: in 1989, 1993 and 1997. He has eight children.

Haneen Zoabi
حنين زعبي
Zaobi

An Israeli-Palestinian Arab politician, the first Arab Israeli woman to be elected to the Israeli legislative body on an Arab party's list, she also ran in the 2009 legislative elections on the Balad party (an Arab Israeli part in Israel)

Hiam Abbass
هيام عباس
Hiam Abbass

A Palestinian actress and film director, she is known for her roles in Israeli and Palestinian films such as Satin Rouge, Haifa, Paradise Now, The Syrian Bride, Free Zone, Dawn of the World, The Visitor, Lemon Tree, Everyday is a Holiday and Amreeka. In 2012, she was named as a member of the Jury for the Main Competition at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival.

Justin Amash
جاستين عماش
Justin amash

An American attorney and politician, and Republican member of Congress. In January 2011, he began serving as the U.S. Representative for Michigan's 3rd congressional district, centered around Grand Rapids. As of 2013, he was the 6th youngest U.S. Representative. He is Chairman of the House Liberty Caucus. He is born into an Arab-American family, born to a Palestinian father.

See Also

Sources

  1. "Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 1/05/2013
  2. http://www.unrwa.org/etemplate.php?id=253
  3. Cordesman, 2005, p. 54. The figure is based on an estimate for 2005, extrapolating from a population 2.3 million in 2001.
  4. http://www1.cbs.gov.il/publications13/yarhon0313/pdf/b1.pdf
  5. http://books.google.com/books?id=MEE2Erm6qIMC&pg=PA110#v=onepage&q&f=false
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_people
  7. http://laventana.casa.cult.cu/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=514
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_people
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_people
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_people
  11. "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
  12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_people
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_people
  14. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_people
  15. With the exception of Bks. 1, 105; 3.91.1, and 4.39, 2.
  16. Herodotus describes its scope in the Fifth Satrapy of the Persians as follows: "From the town of Posidium, [...] on the border between Cilicia and Syria, as far as Egypt – omitting Arabian territory, which was free of tax, came 350 talents. This province contains the whole of Phoenicia and that part of Syria which is called Palestine, and Cyprus. This is the fifth Satrapy." (from Herodotus Book 3, 8th logos)
  17. Cohen, 2006, p. 36
  18. Plištim is often compared to the semitic root palash or falash meaning "rolling and spreading" or "migratory".
  19. Cohen, 2006, p. 37.
  20. "Cambridge History of Judaism" 3. Cambridge.org. p. 210. Retrieved 2011-08-16.  "In both the Idumaean and the Ituraean alliances, and in the annexation of Samaria, the Judaeans had taken the leading role. They retained it. The whole political–military–religious league that now united the hill country of Palestine from Dan to Beersheba, whatever it called itself, was directed by, and soon came to be called by others, ‘the Ioudaioi’"
  21. A History of the Jewish People, edited by Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, page 226, "The name Judea no longer referred only to...."
  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestine#Classical_antiquity
  23. Davidson, Linda Kay and David Martin Gitlitz “Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland : an Encyclopedia” Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA 2002, p. 274.
  24. The Secret Key to the Dome of the Rock
  25. Why Italian Planes Bombed Tel-Aviv?
  26. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_art#Cactus_in_Palestinian_Art
  27. http://www.thisweekinpalestine.com/details.php?id=492&ed=43&edid=43".  </<span class="error citation-comment" style="font-size: 100%;"
  28. Cuisine Institute for Middle East Understanding (IMEU) 2006-01-16. Accessed on 2007-12-18
  29. Cuisine Institute for Middle East Understanding (IMEU) 2006-01-16. Accessed on 2007-12-18

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