|Regions with significant populations|
Somali • Arabic
|Related ethnic groups|
Afar • Agaw • Amhara • Beja • Benadiri • Oromo • Rendille • Saho • Tigray • Tigre
The Somali people (: Soomaaliyeed, : الصوماليون) are a Cushitic ethnic group that is native to the Horn of Africa, a peninsula that includes the modern-day nations of Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. Although the Somali people speak their own native languages and follow their own traditions, they are a highly Islamized and Arabized-ethnic group due to the centuries-long connections with the Arab World. Islam's existance in the Horn of Africa is almost as old as the religion itself, where the Somali people have incepted imperial dynasties with the creation of Islamic sultanates that retained autonomy through European colonialism.
The origin of the term Somali can originated from Irir Samaale, a migrant from Yemen during the 800s. The Somalis were a group highly involved in raising livestock, the word can also origin from soo and maal which means go and milk. Because the Horn of Africa's history with Islam and the Arab World, many Somalis have embraced the Arab pan-ethnicity, Somalia is a member of the Arab League, an alliance of Arabic-speaking nations in the Middle East and North Africa and inhabitants of the territory included in the Arab League are known as Arabs regardless of their actual ethnic origin.
Early History and AncestryAccording to rock paintings found in Somalia, the Horn of Africa had been home to early sophisticated civilizations, dating as far as 5,000 years. The Laas Gaal ( : Laas Geel) is a complex of caves in Somaliland, a de facto republic that shows what pre-historic life was like in the Horn of Africa. During the anitquity period of ancient history, the Horn of Africa had strong links and ties with Ancient Egypt, and was home to valuable materials such as frankincense, myrrh and spices. Merchants oftently traded with other civilizations in Africa that included the Egyptians and the Phoenicians (who also were in Lebanon), as well as the Greeks and civilizations from those in the Fertile Crescent and the southern Arabian Peninsula. The ancient Egyptians referred to the land as Punt, or Pwenet. Sometimes they even called it Ta netijer which means God's Land in the ancient Egyptian language. The Puntites, who are assumabely part of the early ethnogenesis of the Somali people, had close connections with the Egyptian pharoahs, oftenly adopting their culture and ways of life, mostly during the reigns of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut they constructed houses dressed in stone. The Wargaade Wall is an ancient stone-wall found in the city of Wargaade that enclosed an ancient civilization. The area was also known as Berberi, or "Land of the Berbers". Due to the existance of Somali merchants in Yemen, even prior to the arrival of Islam, many Somalis are descendants of Arab migrants to Somalia who found various dynasties and clans in Somalia, such as the Darod clan which was founded by Arab migrants from Yemen.
Ancient Trading City-States on the Horn of Africa
The Horn of Africa became home to several city-states that were trading networks for the ancient Greek, Egyptian and Arab kingdoms. Mosylon was trading network located on the Red Sea Coast, recieving large amounts if cinnamon exports from the Indian Subcontinent. According to Greek historian Dioscorides, Mosylon contained the best source of cinnamon. The Mosylonian people also imporated glass products from Egypt, grapes, cloth, corn, wine and tin and exported gum, drugs, tortoise shells, ivory and even incense. The network of Opone traded with merchants from as far as maritime Southeast Asia and the Arabian Peninsula, it was located in what is today the Somali city of Hafun and specialized in the same type of items that the Mosylonians had. Other important trade city-states located on the Berber coast of what would today be Somalia included Malao, Sarapion, Mundus, and Tabae who traded with all sorts of European and Asian kingdoms.
Arrival of Islam and Arabization
In the 800s, Muslim refugees from the Arabian Peninsula arrived in the Horn of Africa, following the event known as the hijra (Arab and Somali converts as is swept across the Horn of Africa. Arab migrants also became refugees from the instability in the Arabian Peninsula and fled to the Horn of Africa to establish dynasties that would later propel the establishment of Islamic sultanates. Latin-speakers referred to this Muslim-controlled trade network as the Pax Islamica. Through centuries of this Pax Islamica, the natives of the Horn of Africa adopted Arab culture and also spoke fluent Arabic as introduced by the Arab migrants. Cities such as Zeila and Mogadishu were important cities of this Pax Islamica. Islam met opposition from the Abyssinian civilizations, who were Christians.: هِجْرَة), the plight of the Arabian prophet Muhammad from Mecca. Islam also arrived as a result of Somali merchants in the Arabian Peninsula, prior to Islam's coming as a major religion. The Horn of Africa has had long connections with the Arabian Peninsula prior to Islam's upbringing by Muhammad. Muslims fleeing persecution by the Pagan Arabian armies fled to the Horn of Africa. After the Muslims defeated the Pagan Arabian armies, the Somalis easily adopted Islam both both
Imperial Age of Sultanates
The arrival of Islam would lead to the creation of powerful imperial dynasties in what would today become Somalia and Ethiopia. Rulers of these Muslim empires would adopt the Indo-Persian title sultan (: سلطان) which refers to Muslim figures of nobility, and govern states known as sultanates ( : السلطنات) which were created from the many ancient city-states that functioned as trade networks.
Ifat Sultanate 1258-1415
The Ifat Sultanate was centered around the city of Zeila, and began its inception by either a man named Umar Walashma or his son, whose name was Ali. Either men conquered the Sultanate of Shewa in 1285. According to some sources, Umar was trying to unify the Muslims of the Horn of Africa as was Yekuno Amlak, the Ethiopian emperor of the rivalling Solomonic dynasty much famous for its battles with the African Muslims, the two states would both go to war. The Muslims were unable to defeat the Solomonic armies due to the lack of unity. In 1332, the sultanate was defeated by an Ethiopian army led by Emperor Amda Seyon I, and appointed Jamal ad-Din as the king. The Sultanate later crumbled as a result of more losses to battles against the Ethiopian armies.
Ajuuraan Kingdom 1300s-1600sThe Ajuuraan sultanate was known for its unity and and its strong military that resisted invaders, successfully resisting an invasion from an Ethiopic group known as the Oromos from the west. They also defeated the Portuguese armies during the Portuguese-Ajuuraan Wars. The ancient city-states that thrived in the ancient antiquity era were also revived during this, recovering the econmic
glory of the Somali Peninsula. The Ajuuraan sultanate was also renowned for its architecture which included the construction of many castles and forts that still stand in Somalia today. and includes many of the pillar tomb fields, necropolises and ruined cities built in that era. The sultanate was ruled by an Islamic dynasty known as the House of Gareen. The Ajuuraan Sultanate also had hydraulic skill, constructing many wells and cisterns that remain in-function today. The rulers were also agricultural and economic geniuses.
Adal Sultanate 1415–1559The Adal Sultanate began as an emirate of the Ifat Sultanate and was first mentioned between the warring Muslims and Christians. After the death of Ifat's last sultan, Sa'ad ad-Din II under the hands of the Ethiopian rulers, his children escaped to Yemen and turned in 1415. Sabr ad-Din II, the eldest son returned and moved Adal's capital to Dakkar, where he would established the new kingdom. After a series of civil wars between emirs of throne succession, Adal's capital was moved to Harar. Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, built an army that would invade the Abyssinian Empire. Ahmed also became using modern-weapons such as cannons, which the Ottomans supplied him with and the matchlock musket ending the trend of traditional weapon-use among the Adalites. At the sultanate's highest peak, it included the modern-day nations of Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea and Ethiopia. It included a mix of ethnic groups, from Somalis, Afars (enother Ethiopian group) and Arabs.
Sultanate of MogadishuThe city of Mogadishu was an extremely important trading center in the Pax Islamica and would emerge to become one of Somalia's golden sultanates. It had early Persian influence, the name Mogadishu comes from the Arabic phrase "Seat of Shah" ( : مقعد شاه Maq'ad Shah). In 1331, the Berber explorer form Morocco Ibn Battuta arrived in Mogadishu, according to his claims had already been at the height of its power and golden age. He said that it was filled with rich merchants, who traded high-quality fabrics and was ruled by a sultan who spoke fluent Somali and Arabic. The sultan also had many wazirs (ministers), legal experts, commanders, royal eunuchs, and other officials. Coins from the Song Dynasty of China have also been found, hinting Mogadishu's high involvement in the Silk Road. In 1416, ambassadors from Mogadishu were sent to pay tribute to the Chinese emperor who in turn, sent back the famous Hui Chinese eunuch Zheng He. Mogadishu later became part of Ajuuraan's sphere of influence. The Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama described Mogadishu as a large city filled with palaces. According to another Portuguese explorer by the name of Duarte Barbosa, Indian merchants also came to Mogadishu for spices and cloth, giving back gold, ivory and wax in return. Ross E. Dunn, an American historian described Mogadishu and the other Muslim settlements of East Africa as the "Medieval America".
Warsangali Sultanate and Dervish stateIn 1298, a sultan by the name of Gerad Dhidhin ( : Abdulaahi Kooge Maxamuud Harti, : عبد الله كوجى محمود هرتى) established the Warsangsali Sultanate. Dhidhin came from the prominent Warsangali family of the Darod clan ( : Daarood). The Warsangali dynasty would rule the eastern parts of Somalia, mostly in the north with some southern territory. Dhidhin's descendants would continue to rule the sultanate, making it one of the territories largest sultanates ever established. The sultanate included parts of the Sanaag region, territory previously ruled by Akil Dhahar, a Muslim ruler who fought the Abyssinian armies as the Maakhir Coast, the today the region of Bari in Somalia. In 1897, the sultanate came under the influential rule of Sultan Muhamoud Ali Shire, who would become the twenty-sixth sultan of Warsangali after disputes with his father, Gerad Shire who opened connections and relations with authorites from Europe and the Arabian Peninsula. Sultan Shire was involved in a political struggle with his brother-in-law, Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan who also an influential Somali and was the ruler of the Dervish state which became a protectorate of the British Empire. Hassan established the Dervish state in 1896 after uniting Somali armies of the Horn of Africa to fight against the European armies, The Dervish state and Shire's sultanate and Hassan's Dervish state did fight a few battles, a defensive effort by Sultan Shire to prevent Warsangali from becoming part of the Dervish State. Even after defeat against the British forces, the Warsangali imperial clan retain its autonomy and Shire continued to keep it strong until his death. During his reign, he dealth with much turbulent conditions but managed to pull through. He also signed various treaties with the British Empire that allowed the Warsangali Sultanate to become an independant protectorate.
The Majeerteen Sultanate (: Saldanadda Majeerteen, : سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia or Migiurtinia, was a Somali Sultanate in the Horn of Africa. Ruled by Boqor Osman Mahamuud during its golden age, it controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity had all of the organs of an integrated modern state and maintained a robust trading network. It also entered into treaties with foreign powers and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front. Much of the Sultanate's former domain is today coextensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia.
Colonial Era and Second World War
Africa was one of the many geographic targets of European expansion. In 1888, after Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire signed a treaty with the British Empire, British Somaliland was established. In contrary to the European interests, the region was resource-barren and the British had no real interests in it. To the northwest of it was French Somaliland, and like British Somaliland, was formed as a protectorate territory as a result of treaties signed with Somali and Afar sultans. It would later became the mondern-day nation of Djibouti. The Italian Somaliland was established in 1889 after France signed treaties with the Somali Hobyo and Majeerteen sultanates. In the 1940s, the growth of fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany fueled even more desire to invade Africa, both nations becme allies. British Somaliland was invaded in the 1940s in which Italian East Africa was established, the British forces later took it back in 1941.
Somali Civil War
The modern-day political history of the Somali people has unfortunately been marked by much bloodshed over warring clans. During the Cold War, Somalia had been run under a military and communist-government that underwent an attempted coup d'état in 1978 supported by Eastern Bloc states. Mohamed Siad Barre ( The toppling of Barre's regime caused the Somali government and the army to collapse into rivaling militias and clans that fought an extremely bloody battle in Mogadishu, Somalia's capital in 1993. The battle was that bad, that NATO forces consisting of the United States, Pakistan and Malaysia had to intervene in the fighting. The campaign was extremely costly, although the United Nations (U.N) forces won by tactical military means, the Somali militants led by Mohamed Farrah Aidid gained a strategic advantage. A second battle was fought in 2006 between Islamic-backed Somali militants and those fighting to restore peace and restoration in Somalia. The civi war had cost hundreds and thousands of deaths.: Maxamed Siyaad Barre, : محمد سياد بري), the nation's leader at the time executed many government officials.
The Somali language belongs to the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages. It is spoken by the Somali people as a native language, and is currently written in the Latin script although a number of scripts have been invented for it through its history, including of course - an Arabic script. The tradition of writing Somali in the Arabic scriipt was known as Wadaad writing (: وداد الكتابة). The main three dialects of the Somali language is the Northern dialect, the Benaadir and the Maay.The Standard Somali language is based mostly from the Northern dialect. The Benaadir dialect is spoken throughout Mogadishu to the Benaadir Coast. Somali is Somalia's first official language, a national language Djibouti and a recognized regional language in Ethiopia - a region known as the Somali Region ( : Gobolka Soomaalida) which is one of Ethiopia's nine ethnic regions. It is also spoken by ethnic Somalis living in Kenya. There are approximately 17,000,000 speakers of the Somali language.
Arabic and Amharic
Many Somali people are also fluent in the Arabic language via education, a Semitic language also from the Afro-Asiatic family introduced through the long historical ties with the Arab World. Arabic is also an official language in Somalia (along with Somali) and Djibouti, a tradition that has existed ever since the rise of Somali sultanates and Muslim kingdoms on the Horn of Africa. Somalia and Djibouti are also members of the Arab League, which is an organization of roughly 22 Arabic-speaking nations. Most of Somalia and Djibouti's politicians are all fluent Arabic speakers. While Standard Arabic is used among the political classes, most Somalis and Djiboutians speak the Yemeni dialects of Arabic.
The ethnic Somalis living in Ethiopia, particularly in the Somali Region speak Amharic as a second language. Amharic is a Semitic language related to Arabic, and is Ethiopia's national language.
ReligionSomali people are adherents to Islam, as the Horn of Africa was one of the earliest to experience the expansion of Islam, and it mostly owes to the centuries-long existance of Somali traders to and from the southern Arabian Peninsula. Somali traders adopted Islam from their Arab counterparts, and became representing politicians pan-Arab nationalists outside of the Horn of Africa such as Ali al-Jabarti ( : علي آل الجبرتي), a Mamluk scholar from the 1500s and rise to other important Somali Muslim polymaths. Islam also gave rise to Islamic kingdoms, when many Arab converts to Islam fled to the Horn of Africa to escape persecution from the Pagan Arabian armies. Somalia is therefore one of Islam's biggest geographical strongholds. Most Somalis are adherents to the traditional Sunni section of Islam, the Shafi'i school ( : مدرسة الشافعي) Mosques are commonly scattered all across Somalia's cities.
List of Important Somali Islamic Figures
Art, Architecture and Music
ArtArt is an important element in the history of the Somali people. A lot of it is dominated by a form known as Aniconism, as a result of Islamic laws, much of the beautiful visual art of Somalia is dominated by Islam. Carvings are a predominant form of art among the Somali people, usually implemented in the walls, pillars and mihrabs of mosques. Houses were also dressed in stone. The nomadic populations oftenly used wood as a medium, to create on spoons, bowls and other such materials. Metal works included those of gold, silver and daggers known as toraays. Jewelry was also worn by women, metal work most of the time belonged to the wealthy classes. Henna ( : حِنَّاء), a form of female temporary tattooe art made of the ink of a plant of the same name, is also part of Somalian art traditions. The tradition is of Arab, Indian and Ancient Egyptian influence.
ArchitectureSomali architecture had its golden inception during the Ajuuraan Sultanate-era, and is renowned for building a wide-array of structures and forts, cities, castles and fortresses, mosques, aqueducts, lighthouses, and tombs. Ancient Somali architecture recieved much of its influence from Ancient Egypt, with pyramids and stone-dressed houses such as the Wargaade Wall. Many ruins of palaces built during the various sultanates in Somalia still stand today such as those from the Adal Sultanate in Zeila. The city of Merca was an ancient stone-city that whitewashed. Castles entered their way into Somalian architecture during the Middle Ages, and are known as Qalcads in Somalia, mostly built under the order of the sultans. Since Somalia was such an important trade-center, lighthouse architecture was also common and historical lighthouses can be found in Somalia such as the Almnara Tower in Mogadishu. Somali people also enjoy a fushion of Somalo-Islamic architecture and ancient traditions.
CuisineSomali cuisine contains influences from its own native home, as well as European, Arab, African, Indian and Persian influence. Breakfast is an important meal for Somali people, who usually drink tea for breakfast and a pan-cake like dish known as canjeero, a staple food in Somali cuisine. It can be eaten several ways as well, by breaking it into pieces with sugar or eating it with a side dish of liver. Mishaari is the Somali reference to polenta, which is a porridge-dish and is eaten with suga and butter in the Mogadishu region. In the southern regions, near and in Merca, is a special bread known as rooti abuukey is eaten and served with tea in placement of the above mentioned. Malawax is a sweet and greasier version of canjeero. During lunch, the staple ingredients used are pasta, rice, and spices such as cumin, cardamom and cloves. Iskudhexkaris is a popular southern hot-pot dish made of rice, vegetables, or meat. Sabaayad is the Somali version of the Indian chapati, and is served with maraq. Bananas are also a popular side-dish during lunch. Somali restaurants tend to serve a dish known as the "Federation", a spaghetti-dish consisting of equal amounts of rice and pasta on a big-oval plate. It is not typical on household as it is in restaurants. Cambuulo is a dinner meal, made with cooked azuki beans, butter and sugar. The beans are slowly-cooked and take a lengthy time to be well-done. Somalis also drink a warm glass of milk before sleeping. Sambuusa is the version of the samosa, a triangular-wrapped snack. Bajiye is the Somali version of the Indian pakora, a fried snack. Somalia's version contains a hodge podge of corn, meat, vegetables and other spices. Fruits eaten during the day include mangos, guavas, bananas and grapefruit. Xalwo are halva confections, served during Islamic holidays and feasts. A popular sweet in Somalia would be kashaalo or qumbe, which is made of coconut, oil, sugar and spiced with cardamom after being boiled in water. After meals are finished, Somali people usually light frankincense inside an incense burner on top of hot charcoal to give their homes a fragrance.
Notable Somalis or People of Somali Origin
Muhammed Abdullah Hassan|
محمّد عبد اللّه حسن'
|A Somali religious and patriotic leader who established the Dervish state, fought imperialism in the Horn of the Africa and organized the Somali armies to help him fight imperialism, referred to as the Mad Mullah by the British, he established the Dervish State in Somalia that fought the 20 year Somaliland Campaign against British, Italian and Ethiopian forces.|
|A Somali-American enviromental activist who is the Executive Director of the Horn of Africa Relief and Development Organization, co-founder of Sun Fire Cooking and a contributer to the creation of the Women's Coalition for Peace|
Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo|
محمد عبد الله محمد
|The former Prime Mininster of Somalia, who served as the fourth prime minister of Somalia and founder and Secreteary-General of the Tayo Political Party aimed delivering sciences among the people of Somalia|
Asli Hassan Abade|
عسلي حسن آباد
|A Somali pilot and prominent military figure, the only female in the Somali Air Force who paved the way for equality among sexes in the military and campaigning for peace for Somalia|
Born as Mohamed Ibrahim Warsame, a Somali poet and songwriter, he is considered by many to be the greatest living Somali poet, having written many notable protest works. Hadrawi has been likened by some to Shakespeare, and his poetry has been translated into various languages.
|Full name is Iman Mohamed Abdulmajid, a Somali fashion model, actress and entrepreneur, a pioneer in the field of ethnic cosmetics, she is also noted for her charitable work and is the wife of famous British singer David Bowie|
Yusuf Ali Kenadid|
يوسف علي كينايديض
|The founder and first sultan of the Hobyo Sultanate, born into the prominent Darod clan, along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud of the Majeerteen Sultanate, Yusuf Ali was one of the three prominent rulers of present-day Somalia at the turn of the 20th century. He was succeeded atop the throne by his son Ali Yusuf Kenadid.|
|A Somali singer, composer and songwriter who is well-known for working with tradtional Somali music, he produces an eclectic mix of styles blended with traditional Somali music, including the classical oud-centred Qaraami ("love songs" in Arabic) style of the 1940s.|
Mohamoud Ali Shire|
محمود علي شيري
|The twenty-sixth sultan of Warsangali, also from the Darod clan who led the sultanate through turbulent years and like Muhammad Abdullah Hassan, also fought imperialism|
Osman Yusuf Kenadid|
عثمان يوسف كينايديض
|A Somali poet, writer, teacher and ruler from the Hobyo Sultanate, he led in the fields of Somali studies, The rise of nationalist sentiment that followed the end of the Second World War – and especially the birth of the Somali Youth League political party, of which she was a founding member – brought about a revival of interest in and use of the Osmanya script. Nephew of Yusuf Kenadid.|
نور الدين فرح
|A prominent Somali novelist that won the Neustadt International Prize for Literature in 1998. Having published many short stories, novels and essays, his prose has earned him, among other accolades, the Premio Cavour in Italy, the Kurt Tucholsky Prize in Sweden, the Lettre Ulysses Award in Berlin.|
|Ismaïl Omar Guelleh|
إسماعيل عمر جليه
The current President of Djibouti, in office since 1999. Guelleh was first elected as President in 1999 as the handpicked successor to his uncle, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, who had ruled Djibouti since independence in 1977.
|Amina Moghe Hersi|
A Somali-Kenyan lawyer, diplomat and politician. A citizen of Kenya, she previously served as Chairman of the International Organization for Migration and the World Trade Organisation's General Council, as well as Assistant Secretary-General and Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme. As of 20 May 2013, she is the Cabinet Secretary for Foreign Affairs of Kenya
Ayaan Hirsi Ali|
أيان حرسي علي
|A Somali-born American femanist, actiivist, writer, politician and founder of the AHA Foundation, a women's rights foundation and was named one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World by Time magazine in 2005, born a Muslim, she became an atheist and often speaks out against treatment of women in Islam, she has also lived in the Netherlands|
Full name is Keinan Abdi Warsame, a Somali Canadian poet, rapper, singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist. He rose to prominence with the success of his single "Wavin' Flag", which was chosen as Coca-Cola's promotional anthem for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Besides hip-hop, K'naan's sound is influenced by elements of Somali music, Ethio-jazz and world music. He is also involved in various philanthropic initiatives.
Known as "Mo" Farah, a Somali-born British international track and field athlete in the long distance and middle-distance. He is the current 10,000 metres Olympic and World champion and 5000 metres Olympic, World and European champion. On the track, he generally competes over 5000 m and 10,000 m, but also runs the 3000 metres and occasionally the 1500 metres, over which distance Farah is the British and European record holder.
- ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somali_people
- ↑ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html#People
- ↑ http://www.csa.gov.et/pdf/Cen2007_firstdraft.pdf
- ↑ http://allafrica.com/stories/201001120871.html
- ↑ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dj.html
- ↑ http://www.hiiraan.com/news2/2006/nov/ontario_municipal_election_somali_canadian_prospective.aspx
- ↑ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=L2vXPfRsf04C&client=firefox-a
- ↑ http://www.dawn.com/2011/04/26/grotto-galleries-show-early-somali-life.html
- ↑ The Aromatherapy Book by Jeanne Rose and John Hulburd pg 94
- ↑ Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary of 'Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London. 1995, p.231
- ↑ Breasted 1906-07, p. 658, vol. II.
- ↑ Neville Chittick, An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Horn: The British-Somali Expedition, (1975)
- ↑ Byzantine trade, 4th-12th centuries: the archaeology of local, regional and International Exchange By Marlia Mundell Mango pg 278
- ↑ A System of Geography, popular and scientific, or a Physical , Political and Statistical Account of the World and Its Various divisions Volume 6 By James Bell pg 434
- ↑ Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State, p. 125
- ↑ The Glorious Victories, p. 107
- ↑ Shaping of Somali Society pg 101
- ↑ Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800–1900 (African Studies) by Pouwels Randall L – pg 15
- ↑ http://books.google.ca/books?id=zJU3AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA125#v=onepage&q&f=false
- ↑ http://www.mbali.info/doc328.htm
- ↑ http://books.google.ca/books?id=M6NI2FejIuwC&pg=PA10#v=onepage&q&f=false
- ↑ http://books.google.ca/books?id=eK6SBJIckIsC&pg=PA17#v=onepage&q&f=false
- ↑ Jeremy Black, Cambridge Illustrated Atlas, Warfare: Renaissance to Revolution, 1492-1792, (Cambridge University Press: 1996), p.9.
- ↑ http://books.google.ca/books?id=ep7__RWqq4IC&pg=PA5#v=onepage&q&f=false
- ↑ Chapurukha Makokha Kusimba, The Rise and Fall of Swahili States, (AltaMira Press: 1999), p.58
- ↑ Pankhurst, Richard (1961). An Introduction to the Economic History of Ethiopia. London: Lalibela House. ASIN B000J1GFHC. , p. 268
- ↑ East Africa and its Invaders pg.38
- ↑ Dunn, Ross E. (1987). The Adventures of Ibn Battuta. Berkeley: University of California. p. 373. ISBN 0-520-05771-6. , p. 125
- ↑ Culture and customs of Somalia p. 138
- ↑ http://www.wardheernews.com/articles/may/20_Garaad
- ↑ http://www.wardheernews.com/articles/may/20_Garaad
- ↑ Hugh Chisholm (ed.), The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 25, (At the University press: 1911), p.383.
- ↑ Hugh Chisholm (ed.), The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 25, (At the University press: 1911), p. 383.
- ↑ Raph Uwechue, Africa year book and who's who, (Africa Journal Ltd.: 1977), p. 209 ISBN 0903274051
- ↑ A Political Chronology of Africa, (Taylor & Francis: 2001), p. 132 ISBN 1857431162.
- ↑ http://wardheernews.com/Articles_2011/Oct/29_Brothers_in_Army_abdul.pdf
- ↑ Somali at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- ↑ Man, God and Civilization pg 216M